Background: The aim of this study is to compare clinical and radiologic outcomes of self-adhesive taping (SAT) or a short- leg cast (SLC) groups with base of fifth metatarsi.
Methods: Functional outcome was assessed by the Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) at the Emergency and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks. Labour loss, bone union and The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) at 12 weeks were also assessed.
Results: There was no difference between the SAT group and SLC group in VAS-FA scores at time of injury, 6 and 12 weeks. The SAT group had a significantly higher mean VAS-FA score at the second and fourth weeks of follow-up compared with the SLC group (P = .001 and P = .039, respectively). No correlation was observed between the fracture gap and functional scores for both groups. There was no difference in AOFAS between two groups at 12 weeks. Twenty one patients were unable to work for a mean of 38.2 days during the treatment. 10 patients with the SAT missed 37.5 days and eleven patients with the SLC g missed 40.2 (p: 0.41). The bone union was also achieved for all patients within 12 weeks.
Conclusion: Treatment with SAT in these fractures had satisfactory functional results compared with traditional SLC. Although there were no significant differences in labor loss and use of assistive devices, The VAS-FA score was significantly higher in SAT group than the SLC group at the second and fourth weeks of treatment.
The Cotton osteotomy, as described in 1936 by Frederic Cotton, consisted of a medial cuneiform opening base wedge osteotomy. This Cotton osteotomy served to restore the “triangle of support” of the foot. In his address to the New England Surgical Society, he described this osteotomy as being multipurpose; it can be used for plantarflexion in hallux valgus surgery and has use in hallux rigidus conditions. Since its inception, the procedure has become a popular adjunct to aid in the restoration of the medial column deformity present in pes planus. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the use of the procedure to aid in the correction of deformities involving metatarsus primus elevatus, specifically, hallux valgus and hallux limitus. The advantage of the use of this procedure as opposed to others is that it allows for the preservation and/or restoration of first ray length and the preservation of motion at the medial column. In retrospective review, the authors evaluated seven cases with a 1-year follow-up. In this series of cases, the Cotton osteotomy was performed as an adjunct to common hallux valgus procedures or hallux limitus corrections. Radiographic review was also performed evaluating for initial evidence of radiographic bone-graft healing and patient weightbearing. Although not without its own limitations, the Cotton osteotomy offers several advantages with minimal complications, proving to be a valuable underused resource in the foot and ankle surgeon’s toolkit.
Acral lentiginous melanoma is commonly misdiagnosed, and when detected late it portends a poor prognosis. Acral lentiginous melanoma can be mistaken for verruca, pyogenic granuloma, poroma, an ulcer, or other benign skin conditions. Patients with acral skin growths often present initially to a podiatric physician or their primary care physician. It is at this point when the growth is triaged as benign or potentially malignant. Dermoscopy aids in this decision making. Historically, dermoscopy training has been geared toward dermatologists, but there is increasing recognition of the need for dermoscopy training in primary care and podiatric medicine. Dermoscopy is particularly helpful in pink (amelanotic) growths, which can lack the traditional clinical findings of melanoma. A literature review of acral melanoma and dermoscopy was performed in PubMed. We also describe a case of amelanotic acral melanoma in a 58-year-old with a rapidly enlarging painful mass on her heel. The lesion was initially thought to be a pyogenic granuloma and was treated with debridement (curettage). She was ultimately seen in the dermatology clinic, and the findings under dermoscopy were worrisome for amelanotic melanoma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The cancer metastasized, and the patient died less than 2 years later.
Background: Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes characterized by chronic inflammation and impaired wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical device gel based on adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid in the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.
Methods: Thirty-seven diabetic patients with foot ulcers of mild/moderate grade were treated with the gel daily for 4 weeks on the affected area. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and weekly: 1) wound area, measured by drawing a map of the ulcer and then calculated with photo editing software tools, and 2) clinical appearance of the ulcer, assessed by recording the presence/absence of dry/wet necrosis, infection, fibrin, neoepithelium, exudate, redness, and granulation tissue.
Results: Topical treatment led to progressive healing of diabetic foot ulcers with a significant reduction of the wound area and an improvement in the clinical appearance of the ulcers. No treatment-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions: The results of this open-label study show the potential benefits of adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid topical administration to promote reepithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers. Further studies are needed to confirm the observed results.
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the main cause of hospitalizations and amputations in diabetic patients. Failure of standard foot care is the most important cause of impaired DFU healing. Dakin’s solution (DS) is a promising broad-spectrum bactericidal antiseptic for management of DFUs. Studies investigating the efficacy of using DS on the healing process of DFUs are scarce. Accordingly, this is the first evidence-based, randomized, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effect of using diluted DS compared with the standard care in the management of infected DFUs.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of DS in the management of infected DFUs. Patients were distributed randomly to the control group (DFUs irrigated with normal saline) or the intervention group (DFUs irrigated with 0.1% DS). Patients were followed for at least 24 weeks for healing, reinfection, or amputations. In vitro antimicrobial testing on DS was performed, including determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimum biofilm eradication concentration, and suspension test.
Results: Replacing normal saline irrigation in DFU standard care with 0.1% DS followed by soaking the ulcer with commercial sodium hypochlorite (0.08%) after patient discharge significantly improved ulcer healing (P < .001) and decreased the number of amputations and hospitalizations (P < .001). The endpoint of death from any cause (risk ratio, 0.13; P = .029) and the amputation rate (risk ratio, 0.27; P < .001) were also significantly reduced. The effect on ulcer closure (OR, 11.9; P < .001) was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control group. Moreover, DS irrigation for inpatients significantly decreased bacterial load (P < .001). The highest values for the in-vitro analysis of DS were as follows: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1.44%; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 1.44%; minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), 2.16%; and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), 2.87%.
Conclusions: Compared with standard care, diluted DS (0.1%) was more effective in the management of infected DFUs. Dakin’s solution (0.1%) irrigation with debridement followed by standard care is a promising method in the management of infected DFUs.
Background: Losses in muscle strength, balance, and gait are common in patients with chronic stroke (CS). Ankle joint movements play a key role in this population to maintain a sufficient level of functional activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the subtalar joint (STJ) mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on muscle strength, balance, functional performance, and gait speed (GS) in patients with CS.
Methods: Twenty-eight patients with CS were randomly divided into the control group (n = 14) and the STJ MWM group (n = 14). A 30-min neurodevelopmental treatment program and talocrural joint MWM were applied to both groups. Also, STJ MWM was applied to the STJ MWM group. The patients were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion muscle strength, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and GS were evaluated before and after treatment.
Results: Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go test scores, dorsiflexion and plantarflexion muscle strength, and GS improved in both groups after the treatment sessions (P < .05), but the improvements were greater in the STJ MWM group compared with the control group (P < .05).
Conclusions: According to these results, STJ MWM together with neurodevelopmental treatment and talocrural joint MWM can increase ankle muscle strength, balance, functional performance, and GS on the affected leg in patients with CS.
Background: Onychomycosis is a chronic fungal nail infection caused predominantly by dermatophytes, and less commonly by nondermatophyte molds and Candida species. Onychomycosis treatment includes oral and topical antifungals, the efficacy of which is evaluated through randomized, double-blind, controlled trials for US Food and Drug Administration approval. The primary efficacy measure is complete cure (complete mycologic and clinical cure). The secondary measures are clinical cure (usually ≤10% involvement of target nail) and mycologic cure (negative microscopy and culture). Some lasers are US Food and Drug Administration approved for the mild temporary increase in clear nail; however, some practitioners attempt to use lasers to treat and cure onychomycosis.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed in July of 2020 to evaluate the efficacy rates demonstrated by randomized controlled trials of laser monotherapy for dermatophyte onychomycosis of the great toenail.
Results: Randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of laser monotherapy for dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis are limited. Many studies measured cure rates by means of nails instead of patients, and performed only microscopy or culture, not both. Only one included study reported mycologic cure rate in patients as negative light microscopy and culture (0%). The combined clinical cure rates in short- and long-pulsed laser studies were 13.0%–16.7% and 25.9%, respectively. There was no study that reported the complete cure rate; however, one did report treatment success (mycologic cure [negative microscopy and culture] and ≤10% clinical involvement) in nails as 16.7%.
Conclusions: The effectiveness of lasers as a therapeutic intervention for dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis is limited based on complete, mycologic, and clinical cure rates. However, it may be possible to use different treatment parameters or lasers with a different wavelength to increase the efficacy. Lasers could be a potential management option for older patients and onychomycosis patients with coexisting conditions such as diabetes, liver, and/or kidney diseases for whom systemic antifungal agents are contraindicated or have failed.
Background: Point-of-care testing for infection might help podiatric physicians optimize management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Glycologic’s proprietary GLYWD product has been developed to detect changes in a patient’s immunologic/inflammatory response related to wound infection. We evaluated how bacterial presence in DFUs relates to GLYWD test outcome.
Methods: This was a single-organization, prospective, controlled cohort study of clinical opinion versus GLYWD test result for DFU infection status and the appraisal of bacterial presence in the wounds and semiquantitative microbiology swab at weeks 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18. Spearman correlation, backward elimination linear regression, and principal components analysis were applied to determine which variables, including degree of bacterial load, are associated with a positive clinical opinion or GLYWD result for DFU infection.
Results: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, and 142 complete wound appraisals were conducted; a consensus outcome between clinical opinion and GLYWD result was achieved in most (n = 122, 86%). Clinical opinion significantly correlated with a higher bacterial load (Spearman rho = 0.38; P < .01), whereas GLYWD did not (rho = –0.010; P = .91). This observation was corroborated with logistic regression analysis, in which a previous observation of both clinical opinion and GLYWD associating with wound purulence and erythema was also confirmed.
Conclusions: Podiatric physicians are guided by hallmark signs of DFU infection, such as erythema and purulence; furthermore, we found that clinical opinion of infection correlates with increased bacterial load. GLYWD test results match clinical opinion in most cases, although the results obtained with this point-of-care method suggest that the degree of bacterial presence might not necessarily mean a higher chance of inducing an immunologic/inflammatory host response to said bacteria.
Background: The evaluation of musculoskeletal pain in podiatric medical practice is mainly based on anamnesis and manual examination. However, when manual palpation is performed, the digital pressure necessary to adequately explore the different structures of the foot is unknown. We evaluated the pressure pain threshold in forefoot structures to determine the intensity and duration of the stimulus as clinically relevant and representative.
Methods: In a transversal analytical study of 15 healthy individuals, 16 forefoot points were explored with a handheld pressure palpometer calibrated to exert maximum pressing force of 1.0 or 2.0 kilogram-force (kgf) applied during 5 or 10 sec. The combinations of the different pressures and intervals were selected randomly. Participants had to self-rate the pressure pain sensitivity of each stimuli on a 100-mm horizontal line (0–100 numeric rating scale), setting the pain threshold to 50 (100 being pain as bad as it could be). Likewise, aftersensation and referred pain patterns were recorded.
Results: All participants indicated painful stimuli at some of the 16 forefoot points studied in the experimental protocol when pressure was applied with the 2.0-kgf palpometer; 53.3% showed evidence of pain at any forefoot point when the 1.0-kgf palpometer was used. The odds of evoking a painful sensation are 9.8 times higher when using a 2.0-kgf palpometer versus a 1.0-kgf palpometer. In addition, referred sensations were observed with a significantly higher frequency when applying the 2.0-kgf palpometer.
Conclusions: Bone and soft structures show differences in pressure sensitivity, increasing significantly when applying higher pressure force. Soft structures, specifically intermetatarsal spaces, showed the lowest pain pressure thresholds. More research is needed to better understand pressure pain response.