Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
Medial forefoot pain, or midarch pain, is usually attributed to plantar fasciitis. The authors present their findings of a previously unreported nerve entrapment of the medial proper plantar digital nerve (MPPDN). Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were analyzed for anatomical variance in the nerve distribution of the MPPDN. In addition, clinical results from a retrospective review of nine patients who underwent surgical nerve decompression of the MPPDN are presented. Significant anatomical variance was found for the MPPDN in the cadaveric dissection of 10 fresh-frozen specimens. Nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of entrapment of the MPPDN all obtained excellent pain relief with surgical external neurolysis. Only one complication occurred: a hypertrophic scar formation that was successfully treated with intralesional steroid injections. The authors believe that this MPPDN entrapment is often overlooked or misdiagnosed as plantar fasciitis. Surgical peripheral nerve decompression of this nerve can provide positive outcomes for patients suffering from midarch foot pain caused by this pain generator.
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm that has a high tendency for local recurrence. It usually has a higher incidence in the third decade of life. This is a retrospective review of a case with histologic confirmation of GCT in a skeletally immature patient involving the metatarsal bone, which is a rare site. At our institution, 1.3% of skeletally immature patients had GCT of the bone. From an extensive literature review, only four cases of GCT of the metatarsal bone in the skeletally immature were identified. Giant cell tumor in a skeletally immature patient can be confused for an aneurysmal bone cyst because of similar radiologic findings. Giant cell tumor of the bone can occur in an immature skeleton and should be sought out as a differential diagnosis despite being rare.
A case describing an O-to-Z double-advancement flap used to treat a 62-year-old woman with a slowly enlarging exophytic mass in the plantar aspect of the right foot is presented. Clinical details, surgical technique, and histologic photographs are described. This case report highlights the rare exophytic presentation of a pedal angioleiomyoma, which has not been described in the literature before.
Onychocryptosis is a common pathology treated by podiatry medical services, and in a considerable percentage, surgical procedures are required to achieve a solution. There are multiple surgical approaches for ingrown toenails, both incisional procedures and nonincisional procedures, such as chemical matrixectomies and physical matrixectomies using carbon dioxide laser. This study presents a surgical procedure for onychocryptosis using a physical matrixectomy with a 1064-nm laser applied by means of a 400-μm optical fiber and surgical removal of the posterior cauterized tissue to achieve healing by primary intention. This technique was performed on 30 patients with onychocryptosis affecting the great toe (Mozena stages I and IIa), and all of the patients were followed up postoperatively for 12 months. The patients reported minimal postoperative pain, quicker surgical postoperative healing, rapid return to activities of daily living, and minor postoperative recurrence compared with previous studies using incisional procedures and chemical matrixectomies.
Plantar plate repairs are challenging procedures because of the small anatomy of the plantar plate. This can make them daunting, time-consuming procedures to perform. Advances in technology, such as interference screws and small suture passers, have created improved technique possibilities to decrease difficulty, correct multiple planes of deformity, create stronger constructs, and improve patient results. The plantar plate repair technique presented in this article includes a dorsal approach with a metatarsal osteotomy, a knotless repair that provides a strong construct to allow patients to protectively bear weight immediately, and can reduce operative time by presenting tips to quickly navigate the procedure. The presented technique allows for detailed correction of all three planes of deformity, maximizing patient results.
Intraosseous lipomas are rare benign bone neoplasms with an incidence of less than 0.1%; origin in the calcaneus has been reported in only a few patients. First-line treatment remains conservative, but several surgical techniques have also been described. We describe a 44-year-old woman with increasing pain in her left heel for a year and a half, who noticed swelling on the lateral side of the calcaneus. The patient underwent radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography of her left foot, which was suspicious for an intraosseous lipoma with a threatening calcaneal fracture. We performed a surgical procedure, curettage of the tumor, spongioplastics (by autologous bone transplant and ?-tricalcium phosphate), and internal stabilization with a calcaneal plate considering the goal of immediate postoperative weightbearing. Histologic examination confirmed an intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus. The patient's pain was relieved immediately after surgery. Internal stabilization of the calcaneus allowed the patient to immediately fully weightbear and to return to usual daily activities. Although a benign bone tumor, intraosseous lipoma can cause many complications, such as persistent pain, decreased function, or even pathologic fracture as a result of calcaneal bone weakening. Choosing an appropriate treatment is still controversial. Conservative treatment is the first option, but for patients with severe problems and threatening fracture, surgery is necessary. Internal fixation for stabilization enables immediate postoperative weightbearing and shortens recovery time.
We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with resistant heel pain attributable to plantar fascia rupture. She was treated with ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection, and her pain was decreased. Additionally, ultrasound was useful for diagnosis, intervention and follow-up of the patient.
Evaluation for limb-length discrepancy is an important part of the biomechanical work-up in the podiatric musculoskeletal exam. By understanding the foot's contribution to such a discrepancy, the podiatric clinician will have better insight regarding treatment strategy. This technique will provide the clinician with a simple method to gain such insight.
It is important to have a full appreciation of lower-extremity anatomical relationships before undertaking diabetic foot surgery. We sought to evaluate the potential for communication of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon with other pedal tendons and plantar foot compartments at the master knot of Henry and to provide cadaveric images and computed tomographic (CT) scans of such communications. Computed tomography and subsequent anatomical dissection were performed on embalmed cadaveric limbs. Initially, 5 to 10 mL (1:4 dilution) of iohexol and normal saline was injected into the FHL sheath as it coursed between the two hallux sesamoids. Subsequently, CT scans were obtained in the axial plane using a multidetector CT scanner with sagittal and coronal reformatted images. The limbs were then dissected for specific evaluation of the known variable intertendinous connections between the FHL and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and quadratus plantae (QP) muscles. One cadaver demonstrated retrograde flow of contrast into the four individual tendons of the FDL, with observation of a large intertendinous slip between the FHL and FDL on dissection. Another cadaver demonstrated contrast filling in the QP with an associated intertendinous slip between the FHL and QP on dissection. These results indicate that the master knot of Henry (the location in the plantar aspect of the midfoot where the FHL and FDL tendons decussate, with the FDL passing superficially over the FHL) has at least the potential to serve as one source of communication in diabetic foot infections from the medial plantar compartment and FHL to the central and lateral compartments via the FDL and to the rearfoot via the QP.