Injuries involving the first metatarsophalangeal joint and its associated structures are common, especially in athletes. However, injuries to the hallucal sesamoid complex constituted only 3% of all podiatric sports medicine injuries reported by Agosta. This case study reports a female ballet dancer with an isolated fibular sesamoid retraction injury that presented with a history of chronic microtrauma secondary to overuse. When consulting epidemiologic studies of forefoot injuries involving the hallucal sesamoid complex, we were unable to find a single instance of an isolated retraction of the fibular sesamoid resulting from chronic use, demonstrating the unusual nature of this case.
This case study presents a novel technique of end-to-end implantation of cadaver graft for the repair of a complete transversely torn peroneus brevis tendon and partially torn peroneus longus tendon in a 58-year-old woman with chronic lateral ankle instability and associated lateral collateral tears. She had a history of multiple ankle sprains and had previously undergone a failed peroneus brevis tendon retubularization procedure. The use of cadaver graft is well documented in the literature for tendon repairs but not well documented in end-to-end repair of the peroneal tendons. A review of the literature revealed only one 2013 study reporting on the benefits and clinical outcomes of cadaver allograft use in peroneal reconstruction.
Metatarsalgia is characterized by pain in the forefoot, which is associated with increased stress over the metatarsal head region. Despite the availability of a variety of conservative or surgical treatments for this condition, a few cases have demonstrated relapse or poor response to treatment. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) can provide pain relief in patients with diverse chronic conditions without causing neural injury. Recently, studies have shown that ultrasound-guided PRF may be beneficial for adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Here, we describe a successful case of significant pain relief achieved by using ultrasound-guided PRF targeting the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) at the ankle of a 67-year-old woman with recalcitrant metatarsalgia. Ten minutes after ultrasound-guided PRF was applied at the PTN, the patient reported decreased pain (from 8 to 3 on a visual analogue scale) and did not exhibit any particular side effects. Three months after PRF application, the patient's visual analogue scale score remained more than 50% below the baseline, and she did not need additional conservative treatment during the follow-up period. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case report using ultrasound-guided PRF at the PTN for treatment of recalcitrant metatarsalgia. We hypothesize that ultrasound-guided PRF at the PTN may be a potentially novel approach for treating recalcitrant metatarsalgia.
Immigration Brings New Pathology with No Standardized Treatment Protocol
Madura Foot Case Studies Phialemonium and Phaeoacremonium
Madura foot is an uncommon invasive soft-tissue infection that foot and ankle specialists encounter. We present two rare cases of Phialemonium and Phaeoacremonium fungi infections of the foot diagnosed in northern California to inform physicians on the presentation and current treatment options for this unique pathology. The two cases presented outline the clinical presentations, diagnostic data, and surgical and antimicrobial interventions. There is a concentration on the antimicrobial options depending on which of the over 20 species is encountered. The pertinent literature and supporting data are reviewed to create an outline for discussion of treatment protocols when faced with these emerging opportunistic infections.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis from a Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Understanding and Mitigating the Risk
Diabetic foot infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and successful treatment often requires an aggressive and prolonged approach. Recent work has elucidated the importance of appropriate therapy for a given severity of diabetic foot infection, and highlighted the ongoing risk such patients have for subsequent invasive life-threatening infection should diabetic foot ulcers fail to heal. The authors describe the case of a man with diabetes who had prolonged, delayed healing of a diabetic foot ulcer. The ulcer subsequently became infected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The infection was treated conservatively with oral therapy and minimal debridement. Several months later, he experienced MRSA bloodstream infection and complicating endocarditis. The case highlights the ongoing risk faced by patients when diabetic foot ulcers do not heal promptly, and emphasizes the need for aggressive therapy to promote rapid healing and eradication of MRSA.
This case report describes a well-documented birth and evolution of an osteoid osteoma at the talus. Although initial radiologic images indicate mild bone marrow edema at first (without nidus), subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic images reveal pathognomonic nidus at the talus. During the evolution of the lesion, typical night pain was coincident with the occurrence of the nidus, as seen on magnetic resonance imaging. This may be interpreted that nidus formation may be related to the night pain. In this report, the first finding was bone marrow edema. Although our classic knowledge was that the edema follows the lesion, this report makes a difference. The relationship between bone marrow edema and osteoid osteoma has not been questioned in the literature before. We speculate that this report brings to mind, the question of which comes first? A bone marrow edema or nidus? Another question is: Does osteoid osteoma always start with such a dust cloud in the bone as we presented herein?
We report on the unusual presentation of a schwannoma. Aside from the aberrant dorsolateral anatomical presentation, ultrasonography revealed not only peripheral vascularity but also internal vascularity. Internal vascularity often suggests a malignant process as opposed to a benign one; however, in the presented case, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed with S100 immunohistochemical staining. In this study, we review the literature on this pathology and present an uncommon presentation of a benign nerve tumor.
Tarsal coalitions of the lesser tarsus are relatively rare congenital anomalies. A case report of a 54-year-old man with an osseous medial cuneonavicular coalition and a nonosseous naviculocuboid coalition that presented as first metatarsophalangeal joint pain is described.
We report an unusual case of Aeromonas hydrophilia septicemia in a nonmobile diabetic patient secondary to contaminated well water used for bathing with a portal of entry through chronic forefoot and heel ulcers. To date, there are no documented cases similar to this patient's presentation. Aeromonas hydrophilia is commonly distributed among aquatic environments and tends to be found during warmer months. It is a rare cause of disease but can be life threatening and deadly, as in our case, in immunocompromised individuals. As podiatric physicians, we must remain diligent and have a high index of suspicion to identify patients at risk for this rare but serious infection and administer treatment aggressively to limit morbidity and mortality.
Percutaneous Electrochemical Debridement of the Plantaris Tendon
A Novel Option in the Treatment of Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy
Plantaris tendon disorders are a well-known source of midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Plantaris tendon thickening and fibrous tissue formation between the tendons are the histologic abnormalities that are typically observed. Surgical approaches (scraping of the Achilles medial and ventral paratendinous tissues and excision of the plantaris tendon) have already shown good clinical outcomes; despite this, the cost-benefit ratio of these interventions may be unfavorable, and their accessibility is limited. Percutaneous needle electrolysis is a minimally invasive ablative technique increasingly being considered for the treatment of tendinopathies and associated conditions. Herein we introduce a novel procedure to treat plantaris tendon–related midportion Achilles tendinopathy. The procedure starts with the ultrasound-guided insertion of an uncoated needle (diameter, 0.30–0.40 mm; length, 30 mm) between the plantaris and Achilles tendons. Subsequently, galvanic current (intensity, 2 mA) is locally transferred, which induces instant nonthermal electrochemical ablation of the intertendinous tissues in close proximity to the needle, finally debriding the plantaris tendon. To further promote its release, the second part of the procedure involves partial tenotomy of the lateral peripheral aspects of the plantaris tendon. Usually, the session does not exceed 30 min. Percutaneous needle electrolysis may be considered as a valid alternative to surgery. The outpatient procedure presented herein is, in fact, safe and quick to perform. In addition, long suspension of working or sporting activities after treatment is not required. Future investigations are needed to ascertain the short- and long-term therapeutic outcomes of plantaris tendon–related midportion Achilles tendinopathy treatment, in particular by comparing them with those obtained with other mini-invasive interventions.