The talonavicular joint is a rare site of dislocation. Its etiology varies and can be the result of either acute trauma or a chronic degenerative process that most commonly occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or Charcot arthropathy. Our aim is to highlight the relationship between the underlying pathology of talonavicular dislocations and the final outcome in the case of operative management.
We present three cases of talonavicular dislocation with the dislocation itself as the only common denominator, and a completely different etiology, natural history, treatment, and prognosis among them.
There was one case of a traumatic talocalcaneonavicular dislocation in a healthy individual, one case in a rheumatoid arthritis patient, and one case in a patient with diabetes mellitus. All patients were treated surgically. The outcomes were excellent, fair, and poor, respectively.
Among many factors that influence prognosis, it is equally critical to evaluate the overall background in which the dislocation occurs so as to apply the suitable treatment. The surgeon not only needs to treat the local incident but also appreciate the general medical condition to provide the best final outcome to the patient.
The Treatment of Complex Motorcycle Spoke Injuries in Children
A Report of Four Cases and Literature Review
Motorcycle spoke injuries involving the soft tissue, Achilles tendon, and calcaneal defects are rare in children. Currently, calcaneal defects are very challenging to treat. Multiple methods have been used in clinical practice; however, an effective treatment has yet to be established, especially when Achilles tendon and soft-tissue defects are also present. It is important to address this condition, because the calcaneus plays a key role in standing and gait. Unsatisfactory treatment of calcaneal defects may significantly decrease patients' quality of life (eg, by limiting mobility). In this article, we report the effective treatment of calcaneal defects in four children using distraction osteogenesis with an external fixator framework designed by the authors. From May 2014 to May 2015, four children (age range, 6–11 years) with defects of the Achilles tendon, soft tissue, and calcaneus resulting from a motorcycle accident were treated at our hospital. The Achilles tendon and soft-tissue defects were treated with second-stage reconstruction. In the third-stage surgery, osteotomy of the residual calcaneus was performed. A customized external fixator was used to lengthen the calcaneus at a rate of 1.5 mm/day in the posterior direction and reposition it by 40° in the inferior direction. In all four children, the calcaneus was lengthened by 5 cm. Distraction osteogenesis through external fixation is effective for restoring the length, width, and height of the calcaneus in children.
The number of people with diabetes is expected to reach 592 million in the year 2035. Diabetic foot lesions are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. The aims of this study were to examine for the first time a new biocompatible and biodegradable tridimensional collagen-based matrix, GBT013, in humans for diabetic foot ulcer wound healing and to evaluate its ease of use to better define a protocol for a future clinical trial. Seven adult patients with a diabetic foot ulcer of grade 1A to 3D (University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification) were treated using GBT013, a new collagen-based advance dressing and were monitored in two specialized foot care units for a maximum of 9 weeks. Five of seven wounds achieved complete healing in 4 to 7 weeks. Nonhealed ulcers showed a significant reduction of the wound surface (>44%). GBT013 was well tolerated and displayed positive wound healing outcomes as a new treatment strategy of chronic foot ulcers in diabetic patients.
Conservative treatment is generally successful in treating early tarsometatarsal joint arthritis. However, if such treatment fails, invasive arthrodesis or arthroplasty may be needed. Arthroscopy is a less invasive alternative and can provide a precise diagnosis of early osteoarthritis or cartilage injury. Furthermore, arthroscopic treatments such as microfracture, chondroplasty, or loose-body removal are expected to delay progression of the osteoarthritis. We describe a 52-year-old man with early tarsometatarsal joint arthritis after calcaneal fracture healing who underwent a successful arthroscopic microfracture for cartilage defects. Arthroscopic findings show cartilage defects on the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joints. The patient underwent shaving and microfracture. The patient continues to experience effective symptom relief 3 months after surgery.
Mycetoma cases are predominantly found in tropical regions and are a rare finding in the United States. These masses that are fungal or bacterial in origin can result in significant destruction of soft tissue and bone. We present a case of a patient who emigrated from Mexico to Indianapolis. He presented with a soft-tissue mass that was excised and ultimately found to be a eumycetoma of the hallux of his left foot. Successful treatment included surgical resection in combination with postoperative terbinafine, which was pulse dosed to decrease its impact on hepatic function.
An unusual case of solitary benign schwannoma of the foot is presented. Clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative findings all confirm the suspicion of a ganglion cyst. After attempted aspiration failed to produce any aspirate, excisional biopsy was performed. The pathology report confirms schwannoma with hematoxylin and eosin stain and subsequently reaffirmed with positive S100 protein stain. Even though schwannoma of the foot had been reported in the literature, this was an unusual case, as the lesion was presented as a superficial, ganglion cyst–like lesion on the bottom of the foot.
A 68-year-old man with a slow-growing lesion in the distal medial band of the plantar fascia of the left foot is presented. Clinical photographs, ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, histologic results, and immunochemical staining are disclosed. This case study presentation aims to highlight the importance of including angioleiomyoma in the differential diagnosis of plantar foot soft-tissue masses.
The surgical management of distal intra-articular comminuted fracture of the tibia (pilon fracture) is difficult because complications frequently develop. The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique is generally accepted for this type of fracture. In this study, complications developed after open reduction and internal fixation using multiple miniplates for accurate reduction of small fracture fragments. Therefore, when we use this technique, we need to pay attention to the development of complications such as nonunion, avascular necrosis, and osteomyelitis by the disruption of both endosteal blood supply by fracture and periosteal blood supply during approach or reduction.
Acral fibrokeratoma is a rare soft-tissue mass, more commonly found on the hands and rarely on the feet. This case report of a 40-year-old Hispanic man highlights an unusually located acral fibrokeratoma on the second toe, describes the clinical presentation and microscopic and pathologic findings, discusses differential diagnoses, and presents treatment options.
Acrokeratoelastoidosis (AKE) is a rare form of focal acral keratoderma of unknown cause that typically begins during childhood and manifests with multiple, small, hyperkeratotic papules located over the lateral margins of the hands and feet. The purpose of this article is to report a pediatric case of AKE with dermoscopic, sonographic, and histopathologic descriptions, contributing to the awareness of this clinical diagnosis. We describe a 7-year-old girl with nonpainful yellowish papules on the lateral and medial aspects of both feet. Dermoscopy showed yellowish, structureless, linear areas. The sonographic appearance was suggestive of benignancy and ruled out the presence of piezogenic pedal papules and granulomas. Histopathology was consistent with AKE, showing acral skin with hyperorthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, and elastorrhexis in the reticular dermis. Acrokeratoelastoidosis may be difficult to recognize clinically because of its resemblance to other focal acral keratodermas. Color Doppler ultrasound can be a useful noninvasive tool for diagnosis and can confirm its benign appearance, although histopathology confirms the definitive diagnosis. To date, the dermoscopic description and ultrasound morphology of AKE have not been reported.