Lipofibromatous hamartoma (LFH) is a rare, benign, tumor-like soft-tissue lesion that affects the peripheral nerves and forms a palpable neurogenic mass. Lipofibromatous hamartoma is associated with pain and sensory and/or motor deficits in the area of innervation of the affected nerve. This report describes a rare case of LFH of the plantar nerve. A 48-year-old woman presented to our outpatient orthopedic clinic with pain and a burning sensation on her left foot. The patient had a history of Morton's neuroma and had undergone a tarsal tunnel operation 2 years earlier at another center. None of her symptoms was alleviated by two previous operations. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon and signal changes at deep tissue planes of the foot at the levels of the second and third toes, on the dorsal site and subcutaneous soft-tissue planes, suggesting edema and Morton's neuroma. The lesion was excised under spinal anesthesia, and histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed a diagnosis of LFH. The patient was discharged without any symptoms and her foot was normal at 8-month outpatient follow-up, with no indications of postoperative complications and/or recurrence.
Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is a common inflammatory disease of the hallux. It results from the alteration of fit of the nail plate in the lateral nail fold. Ingrown toenails are usually seen in adolescents and young adults and can affect daily activities and social life. Generally, ingrown toenails are classified into three stages, including the inflammatory stage, the abscess stage, and the granulation stage. In this article, we present the rare case of a man with a diagnosis of paronychia with sporangium formation causing an ingrown toenail.
The foot is considered the second most common location for foreign bodies. The most common foreign bodies include needles, metal, glass, wood, and plastic. Although metallic foreign bodies are readily seen on plain film radiographs, radiolucent bodies such as wood are visualized poorly, if at all. Although plain radiography is known to be ineffective for demonstrating radiolucent foreign bodies, it is often the first imaging modality used. In such cases, complete surgical extraction cannot be guaranteed, and other imaging modalities should be considered. We present a case of a retained toothpick of the second metatarsal in a young male patient who presented with pain in the right foot of a few weeks' duration. Plain radiography showed an oval cyst at the base of the second metatarsal of the right foot. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a toothpick penetrating the second metatarsal. The patient recalled stepping on a toothpick 8 years previously. Surgical exploration revealed a 2-cm toothpick embedded inside the second metatarsal.
Gout is a purine metabolism disease. Tophaceous gout may cause joint destruction and other systemic problems and sometimes may be complicated by infection. Infection and sinus with discharge associated with tophaceous gout are serious complications, and treatment is difficult. We present a patient with tophaceous gout complicated by infection and discharging sinus treated by bilateral amputation at the level of the first metatarsus.
A 43-year-old man previously diagnosed as having gout, and noncompliant with treatment, presented with tophaceous gout associated with discharging sinus and infection on his left first metatarsophalangeal joint. Because of the discharging sinus associated with the tophaceous deposits, the soft-tissue and bony defects, and the noncompliance of the patient, amputation of the first ray was undertaken, and a local plantar fasciocutaneous flap was used to close the defect. After 8 months, the patient was admitted to the emergency department with similar symptoms in his right foot, and the same surgical procedure was performed.
One year after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms, there was no local inflammatory reaction over the surgical areas, and laboratory test results were normal.
Gout disease with small tophi often can be managed conservatively. However, in patients with extensive lesions, risk of superinfection justifies surgical treatment. Results of complicated cases are not without morbidity; therefore, early surgical treatment may prevent extremity loss and further complications. In severe cases, especially with compliance issues, amputation provides acceptable results.
Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma is a rare benign fibrous tumor predominantly seen in children and adolescents younger than 20 years. This tumor is often treated with complete surgical excision, although the recurrence rate is approximately 50%. The distal upper and distal lower extremities are most commonly involved, with only three cases published to date involving pedal digits. We discuss a case of calcifying aponeurotic fibroma in a 25-year-old woman localized to the medial aspect of the distal hallux. Clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings are described. After an incisional biopsy and histopathologic findings confirmed that the lesion was benign, a complete excision was performed, and diagnosis was established for calcifying aponeurotic fibroma. At 6 months, the patient had healed uneventfully, and no recurrence has been noted. Malignant transformation is rare but has been documented, warranting concern for clinicians and patients.
Primary bone lymphoma is a rare disease, accounting for less than 5% of all extranodal lymphoma. Although the femur is cited as being the most common site, primary bone lymphoma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Herein we present a case of diffuse B-cell–type malignant lymphoma manifested as a large soft-tissue mass of the leg, via metastasis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the femur, which went untreated. We highlight the advantages of various imaging modalities used throughout the process of diagnosis and treatment because accurate and early diagnosis are essential. This case gives us a unique opportunity to witness the rapid progression of metastasis and an atypical location.
A case of a repaired failed toe arthrodesis is presented. A novel and previously unreported approach using a percutaneously placed Kirschner wire coupled with a pulsed electromagnetic field achieved healing of a painful pseudoarthrosis at 54 days. With a percutaneous technique, open debridement of the failed arthrodesis site can be avoided.
Retronychia is a newly described condition characterized by the embedding of the nail plate into the proximal nail fold. It mainly affects the great toe unilaterally as a result of mechanical factors. It is rarely reported, and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Nail plate avulsion represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic approach. We describe a 34-year-old woman with a medical history of congenital malalignment of the toenails, diagnosed as having retronychia, and emphasize the disease pathogenesis and surgical procedure.
A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub–first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure. The second stage corrected the osseous deformity with a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The ulceration has remained closed since the procedures, with complete resolution of pain.
Simple bone cysts compose approximately 3% of all primary bone tumors and most commonly occur in the metaphyseal regions of the proximal humerus and femur. The percentage of the talus with suspected bone tumors is reported to be 0.003%. Therefore, talar cysts are rare but sometimes present as aggressive lesions, and they can affect any of the tarsal bones. Recently, an arthroscopic approach to these lesions has been developed that is less invasive than conventional open surgery. In the present case study, we profile a 65-year-old female patient who received arthroscopic debridement of a bone cyst from the medial aspect of the talus with the osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS). By using the OATS core harvester, we penetrated into the tumor. After the cylindrical bone plug was pulled out, the tumor was removed and artificial bone granules were firmly packed into the cavity with intralesional arthroscopy. Then, the cylindrical bone plug previously harvested by OATS was implanted at the site with careful precision. This intervention resulted in a relative restoration of talar dome anatomy and ultimately restored the patient to activity with minimal discomfort. Therefore, arthroscopic debridement with OATS has the potential to be a useful option in dealing with debilitating osteochondral cystic lesions.