Malreduction of a distal fibular fracture can lead to degenerative changes in the ankle joint. Previous studies have shown that the selective use of various fibular reconstructive osteotomies may halt the progression of degenerative arthritis by restoring the normal tibiotalar contact area and decreasing the stresses on the articular cartilage. In this case report, we achieved alignment with restoration of the talocrural angle and Shenton's line of the ankle using a transfibular osteotomy and an allogeneic fresh-frozen femoral head graft to fill the resultant defect. The advantage of this procedure is twofold. First, fibular-lengthening procedures may potentially decrease the eventual need for joint-sacrificing procedures such as an arthrodesis or arthroplasty. Second, an allograft allows for larger deficit correction without concern for donor-site morbidity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report using a fresh-frozen femoral head allograft for a fibular-lengthening osteotomy in the podiatric medical literature. Further research with larger patient populations is needed to establish whether fresh-frozen femoral head allograft is a reliable graft option for fibular-lengthening procedures.
Epidermoid cysts of the sole of the foot are rare lesions that must be differentiated from other, more common subcutaneous pathologic abnormalities located on the sole. Cases of epidermoid cysts that extend to the interosseous musculature are rarer still. We report the case of a giant epidermal cyst in a 64-year-old individual that extended to the intrinsic musculature of the third space of the right foot and that was diagnosed after fine-needle aspiration biopsy and subsequent cytologic study. Differential diagnosis of these lesions should be made with the support of additional imaging tests, and diagnostic confirmation should always be obtained after surgical removal and subsequent histopathologic study.
This case report concerns a patient with a painful soft-tissue mass on his fourth toe. He was evaluated for this soft-tissue mass and was diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis. The podiatric physician should be able to evaluate a patient with a lower-extremity complaint and relate whether this complaint may correlate with a systemic disorder. This case report will make the podiatric physician more aware of tuberous sclerosis and the manifestations of the disorder.
Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) is an uncommon occurrence for a foot and ankle surgeon. However, there is a need to recognize the symptoms of typical and atypical presentations of this pathology. These benign neoplasms are recognized clinically as a soft-tissue mass that is usually painless and palpable. The foot and ankle account for only 3% to 5% of all GCT-TS in the body, with most being located in the hand. Giant cell tumor in the tendon sheath occurring in the foot and ankle is usually encountered on the lateral ankle and dorsum of the foot, occupying the extensor tendons. Additionally, it is commonly misdiagnosed clinically. This case study illustrates how early use of magnetic resonance imaging decreased patient morbidity with early recognition and excision of GCT-TS.
Lipomas are benign adipose masses that are rarely associated with synovial membranes. In addition, there are only a few reports describing synovial lipomas in the foot. No reported occurrence of this lesion in the subtalar joint currently exists. This case report documents the presentation, clinical evaluation, advanced imaging, and surgical management of a 45-year-old man with a large synovial lipoma of the subtalar joint.
Lesser metatarsal sesamoids are one of the most common accessory bones of the foot and are most commonly seen at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. They are rarely seen in other metatarsophalangeal joints. In the literature, there are reports of solitary accessory sesamoid bones seen at lesser metatarsophalangeal joints. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with lesser metatarsal sesamoids accompanying all of the metatarsophalangeal joints.
Angioleiomyomas are benign tumefactions that originate from smooth muscle in vascular structures and are difficult to definitively diagnose preoperatively. Although these lesions are rarely encountered in the foot, the lower extremity is the most common site of occurrence. An angioleiomyoma typically manifests as a small, painful, solitary, mobile lesion. This case report describes a lateral retromalleolar para–Achilles tendon insertional location for a moderately sized immobile solid tumefaction in the subcutaneous tissues. The lesion was nonpainful and progressively enlarged over 5 years. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the nodular lesion was subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as an angioleiomyoma. Owing to the ambiguous nature of the clinical findings, angioleiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower-extremity soft-tissue manifestations.
Most fungal infections primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of osteomyelitis involving the first metatarsal head due to Cryptococcus neoformans in a previously healthy immunocompetent patient. She was treated with surgical debridement combined with antifungal drug therapy for 6 months. At 5-year follow-up, she remained symptom free with full range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Fungal osteomyelitis should be considered as a possible cause in osteolytic lesions in the metatarsal bone.
Fracture-dislocations of the tarsal navicular are rare and highly complex injuries to the midfoot. The only published data on this type of fracture are clinical case reports. These injuries are normally caused by high-energy trauma, and their pathophysiology and most appropriate treatment remain unclear. We report a clinical case of a dorsal fracture-dislocation of the tarsal navicular bone associated with a medial swivel dislocation of the Chopart joint caused by a bicycle fall in a 20-year-old healthy man. Open reduction and percutaneous pinning in a novel arrangement was performed, with an excellent outcome 18 months after the injury.
Lower-Extremity Infections Caused by Serratia marcescens
A Report of Three Cases and a Literature Review
Serratia marcescens is a ubiquitous, facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative bacillus that has been cited to cause infection in immunocompromised populations. In the literature, S marcescens infections of the lower extremity have presented as granulomatous ulceration, abscess, bullous cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Herein we present a series of three cases of lower-extremity infections in which S marcescens was the sole or a contributing pathogen. We discuss the commonalities of these three cases as well as with those previously cited. All three patients presented with some combination of a similar set of clinical characteristics, including bullae formation, liquefactive necrosis, and black necrotic eschar. All three patients were diabetic and had peripheral vascular disease.