Background: Multiple organizations have issued guidelines to address the prevention, diagnosis, and management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) based on evidence review and expert opinion. We reviewed these guidelines to identify consensus (or lack thereof) on the nature of these recommendations, the strength of the recommendations, and the level of evidence.
Methods: Ovid, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched in October 2018 using the MESH term diabetic foot, the key word diabetic foot, and the filters guideline or practice guideline. To minimize recommendations based on older literature, guidelines published before 2012 were excluded. Articles without recommendations characterized by strength of recommendation and level of evidence related specifically to DFU were also excluded. A manual search for societal recommendations yielded no further documents. Recommendations were ultimately extracted from 12 articles. Strength of evidence and strength of recommendation were noted for each guideline recommendation using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system or the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine system. To address disparate grading systems, we mapped the perceived level of evidence and strength of recommendations onto the American Heart Association guideline classification schema.
Results: Recommendations found in two or more guidelines were collected into a clinical checklist characterized by strength of evidence and strength of recommendation. Areas for future research were identified among recommendations based on minimal evidence, areas of controversy, or areas of clinical care without recommendations.
Conclusions: Through this work we developed a multidisciplinary set of DFU guidelines stratified by strength of recommendation and quality of evidence, created a clinical checklist for busy practitioners, and identified areas for future focused research. This work should be of value to clinicians, guideline-issuing bodies, and researchers. We also formulated a method for the review and integration of guidelines issued by multiple professional bodies.
Despite advancements in the treatment of diabetic patients with “at-risk” limbs, minor and major amputations remain commonplace. The diabetic population is especially prone to surgical complications from lower extremity amputation because of comorbidities such as renal disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, microvascular and macrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Complication occurrence may result in increases in hospital stay duration, unplanned readmission rate, mortality rate, number of operations, and incidence of infection. Skin flap necrosis and wound healing delay secondary to inadequate perfusion of soft tissues continues to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and cost to individuals and the health-care system. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the assessment of tissue perfusion may be used to assess tissue perfusion in this patient population to minimize complications associated with amputations. This technology provides real-time functional assessment of the macrovascular and microvascular systems in addition to arterial and venous flow to and from the flap soft tissues. This case study explores the use of indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the treatment of a diabetic patient with a large dorsal and plantar soft-tissue deficit and need for transmetatarsal amputation with nontraditional rotational flap coverage. The authors theorize that the use of indocyanine green may decrease postoperative complications and cost to the health-care system through fewer readmissions and fewer procedures.
Background: The deep plantar arterial arch (DPAA) is formed by an anastomosis between the deep plantar artery and the lateral plantar artery. The potential risk of injury to the DPAA is concerning when performing transmetatarsal amputations, and care must be taken to preserve the anatomy. We sought to determine the positional anatomy of the DPAA based on anatomical landmarks that could be easily identified and palpated during transmetatarsal amputation.
Methods: In an effort to improve our understanding of the positional relationship of the DPAA to the distal metatarsal parabola, dissections were performed on 45 cadaveric feet to measure the location of the DPAA with respect to the distal metatarsal epiphyses. Images of the dissected specimens were digitally acquired and saved for measurement using in-house–written software. The mean, SD, SEM, and 95% confidence interval were calculated for all of the measurement parameters and are reported on pooled data and by sex. An independent-samples t test was used to assess for sex differences. Interrater reliability of the measurements was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient.
Results: The origin of the DPAA was located a mean ± SD of 35.6 ± 3.9 mm (95% confidence interval, 34.5–36.8 mm) proximal to the perpendicular line connecting the first and fifth metatarsal heads. The average interrater reliability across all of the measurements was 0.921.
Conclusions: This study provides the positional relationship of the DPAA with respect to the distal metatarsal parabola. This method is easily reproducible and may assist the foot and ankle surgeon with surgical planning and approach when performing partial pedal amputation.
Complex soft-tissue injuries consist of difficult traumatic injuries caused by high-energy mechanisms such as motor vehicle accidents, lawnmower injuries, and crush injuries from heavy objects. Many times, because of the high-energy trauma, there is significant damage to the soft tissue and underlying bone, leading to a complex situation for healing. In this case report, a 43-year-old woman presented with extensive degloving injury and open fractures of the forefoot resulting from a lawnmower accident. After extensive irrigation and debridement, wound closure was achieved using a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG). Although many case reports have been published about management of these complex soft-tissue injuries, there are no reports on using an autologous FTSG from a neighboring digit undergoing distal amputation for wound coverage. This report discusses the technique of using an autologous FTSG from an amputated specimen to achieve wound coverage with adequate limb salvage principles.
Objective: To investigate the predictive value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in persons with and without diabetes with osteomyelitis (OM).
Methods: We evaluated 455 patients in a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the hospital with diabetic foot OM (n = 177), diabetic foot soft-tissue infections (STIs) (n = 176), nondiabetic OM (n = 51), and nondiabetic STIs (n = 51). Infection diagnosis was determined through bone culture, histopathologic examination for OM, and/or imaging (magnetic resonance imaging/single-photon emission computed tomography) for STI. The optimal cutoff values of ESR and CRP in predicting OM were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined through contingency tables.
Results: In persons without diabetes with STI or OM, the mean ESR and CRP differences were 10.0 mm/h and 2.6 mg/dL, respectively. In contrast, persons with diabetes had higher levels of each: 24.8 mm/h and 6.8 mg/dL, respectively. As a result, ESR and CRP predicted OM better in patients with diabetes. However, when patients were stratified by neuropathy status, ESR remained predictive of OM in diabetic patients with neuropathy (75% sensitivity, 58% specificity) but not in diabetic patients without neuropathy (50% sensitivity, 44% specificity). Also, CRP remained predictive irrespective of neuropathy status. A similar trend was observed in patients without diabetes.
Conclusions: Previous studies have reported that ESR and CRP are predictive of OM. However, this study suggests that neuropathy influences the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers. The underlying mechanisms require further study.
Background: Midfoot osteotomy is often used in the surgical treatment of foot deformities. The percutaneous Gigli saw osteotomy (PGSO) technique has many advantages compared with known osteotomy techniques. We aimed to show the efficacy and reliability of the PGSO technique in the midfoot of fresh frozen cadavers without using an image intensifier.
Methods: Four mini-incisions were performed on the dorsomedial, dorsolateral, plantar medial, and plantar lateral regions of the midfoot. Subperiosteal tunnels were then opened with a thin bone elevator, and the four incisions were combined with each other. The Gigli saw was tied to suture material and passed through the tunnels. The PGSO was performed in the midfoot of 12 feet of the cadaver specimens without using an image intensifier. Cadaver specimens were dissected, and injured structures were noted.
Results: The mean ± SD (range) cadaver age was 81.16 ± 10.38 years (65–93 years) and weight was 60.86 ± 12.39 kg (49.8–81.6 kg). All of the osteotomies were adequate as planned in the cuboid-cuneiform level and all of them were complete osteotomy .Incomplete osteotomy was not observed in any cadaver specimens. In one specimen, a complete injury of the peroneal tendons (peroneus longus and brevis) was detected. In another specimen, an incomplete tibialis anterior tendon injury was detected. There was no iatrogenic neurovascular injury in the specimens.
Conclusions: The PGSO technique is recommended for use even by inexperienced surgeons owing to its minimal risk of soft-tissue injury, provision of a complete osteotomy line, and easy application with limited incisions.
Background: Nail thickening is a poor prognostic factor in onychomycosis. Mechanical reduction by micromotor nail grinding is an alternative treatment for onychomycosis. However, this treatment introduces a large amount of infected nail dust particles into the air and can adversely affect other patients and health-care providers. The innovative recirculating airflow safety cabinet (ASC) was developed to prevent the spread of these generated infected nail dust particles. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the ASC in patients with onychomycosis or traumatic onychodystrophy.
Methods: The ASC was used during the nail-grinding process in 50 patients, including 36 onychomycosis patients and 14 traumatic onychodystrophy patients. For each patient, five Sabouraud dextrose agar plates with chloramphenicol were positioned within the working space of the ASC, and the other five plates were positioned near the area of air exit after the carbon filters within the cabinet. A total of 500 plates were incubated at 25°C and evaluated every 7 days. The results of fungal cultures were analyzed.
Results: In the traumatic onychodystrophy group, all fungal cultures of nail dust particles from both before and after filtration from the ASC were negative in all 14 patients. In the onychomycosis group, 52 fungal cultures (28.9%) from nail particles within the ASC working area tested positive; however, the results of fungal cultures of nail dust particles after filtration were all negative.
Conclusions: The newly developed ASC was found to be effective for preventing the spread of infected nail dust particles generated by micromotor nail grinding to mechanically reduce nail thickness in patients with onychomycosis.
Background: Foot dimension information is important both for footwear design and clinical applications. In recent years, noncontact three-dimensional (3-D) foot digitizers/scanners have become popular because they are noninvasive and are valid and reliable for most of the measures. Some of them also offer automated calculations of basic foot dimensions. We aimed to determine test-retest reliability, objectivity, and concurrent validity of the Tiger full-foot 3-D scanner and the relationship between manual measures of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and alternative parameters obtained automatically by the scanner.
Methods: Intraclass correlation coefficients and minimal detectable change values were used to assess the reliability and objectivity of the scanner. Concurrent validity and the relationships between the arch height measures were determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement between the scanner and the caliper method.
Results: The relative and absolute agreement between the repeated measurements obtained by the scanner show excellent reliability and objectivity of linear measures and only good to nearly good test-retest reliability and objectivity of arch height. Correlations between the values obtained by the scanner and the caliper were generally higher in linear measures (rp ≥ 0.929). The representativeness of state of bony architecture by the soft-tissue margin of the medial foot arch demonstrates the lowest correlation among the measurements (rp ≤ 0.526).
Conclusions: The Tiger full-foot 3-D scanner offers excellent reliability and objectivity in linear measures, which correspond to those obtained by the caliper method. However, values obtained by both methods should not be used interchangeably. The arch height measure is less accurate, which could limit its use in some clinical applications. Orthotists and related professions probably appreciate the scanner more than other specialists.
Background: Historically recalcitrant to treatment, infection of the nail unit is a pervasive clinical condition affecting approximately 10% to 20% of the US population; patients present with both cosmetic symptomatology and pain, with subsequent dystrophic morphology. To date, the presumptive infectious etiologies include classically reported fungal dermatophytes, nondermatophyte molds, and yeasts. Until now, the prevalence and potential contribution of bacteria to the clinical course of dystrophic nails had been relatively overlooked, if not dismissed. Previously, diagnosis had largely been made by means of clinical presentation, although microscopic examinations (potassium hydroxide) of nail scrapings to identify fungal agents and, more recently, panel-specific polymerase chain reaction assays have been used to elucidate causative infectious agents. Each of these tools suffers from test-specific limitations.
Methods: Molecular-age medicine now includes DNA-based tools to universally assess any microbe or pathogen with a known DNA sequence. This affords clinicians with rapid DNA sequencing technologies at their disposal. These sequencing-based diagnostic tools confer the accuracy of DNA-level certainty, and concurrently obviate cultivation or microbial phenotypical biases.
Results: Using DNA sequencing-based diagnostics, the results in this article document the first identification and quantification of significant bacterial, rather than mycotic, pathogens to the clinical manifestation of dystrophic nails.
Conclusions: In direct opposition to the prevailing and presumptive mycotic-based causes, the results in this article invoke questions about the very basis for our current standards of care, including effective treatment regimens.