Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder, with a global prevalence of approximately 5.5%. It is difficult to cure on both short-term and long-term bases. The most common treatments include the use of oral or topical antifungals. Recurrent infections are common, and the use of systemic oral antifungals raises concerns of hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions, particularly in patients with polypharmacy. A number of device-based treatments have been developed for onychomycosis treatment, to either directly treat fungal infection or act as adjuvants to increase the efficacy of topical and oral agents. These device-based treatments have been increasing in popularity over the past several years, and include photodynamic therapy, iontophoresis, plasma, microwaves, ultrasound, nail drilling, and lasers. Some, such as photodynamic therapy, provide more direct treatment, whereas others, such as ultrasound and nail drilling, aid the uptake of traditional antifungals. We conducted a systematic literature search investigating the efficacy of these device-based treatment methods. From an initial result of 841 studies, 26 were deemed relevant to the use of device-based treatments of onychomycosis. This review examines these methods and provides insight into the state of clinical research for each. Many device-based treatments show promising results, but require more research to assess their true impact on onychomycosis.
Background: Clinical studies have shown that posterior malleolar fractures treated with a posterior buttress plate have improved outcomes compared to anterior-to-posterior screw fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of posterior malleolus fixation on clinical and functional results.
Methods: The patients with posterior malleolar fractures who were treated between January of 2014 and April of 2018 at our hospital were investigated retrospectively. Fifty-five patients included in the study were divided into three groups according to the fixation preferences of fractures (group I, posterior buttress plate; group II, anterior-to-posterior screw; and group III, nonfixated). The groups consisted of 20, nine, and 26 patients, respectively. These patients were analyzed according to demographic data, fixation preferences of fractures, mechanism of injury, hospitalization length of stay, surgical time, syndesmosis screw use, follow-up time, complications, Haraguchi fracture classification, van Dijk classification, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, and plantar pressure analysis.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of gender, operation side, injury mechanism, length of stay, anesthesia types, and syndesmotic screw usage. However, when the age, follow-up time, operation time, complications, Haraguchi classification, van Dijk classification, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores were evaluated, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. Plantar pressure analysis data showed that group I yielded balanced pressure distribution between both feet compared to the other study groups.
Conclusions: The posterior buttress plating of posterior malleolar fractures yielded better clinical and functional outcomes compared to the anterior-to-posterior screw fixation and nonfixated groups.
Dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fifth toe is an uncommon injury. When it is diagnosed in the acute phase, closed reduction is commonly an adequate treatment option. We describe a rare case of a 7-year-old patient who presented with late-diagnosed isolated dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fifth toe. Although there are a few reported cases of late-diagnosis combined fracture-dislocation of the toes in both adult and pediatric age groups in the literature, belatedly diagnosed dislocation of the fifth toe without accompanying fracture in the pediatric population, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported. This patient achieved good clinical outcomes after treatment via open reduction and internal fixation.
This case report describes a unique solution to the complex problem of bone loss and first-ray instability after a failed Keller arthroplasty. The patient was a 65-year-old woman who presented 5 years after undergoing Keller arthroplasty of the left first metatarsophalangeal joint for hallux rigidus with a chief complaint of pain and inability to wear regular shoes. The patient underwent first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis with diaphyseal fibula used as structural autograft. The patient has been followed for 5 years and has full resolution of previous symptoms without complications using this previously undescribed autograft harvest site.
Background: Mueller-Weiss disease, a rare and complex foot condition, is defined as spontaneous and progressive navicular fragmentation leading to midfoot pain and deformity. However, its exact etiopathogenesis remains unclear. We report a case series of tarsal navicular osteonecrosis to describe the clinical and imaging characteristics and etiologic profile of the disease.
Methods: This retrospective study included five women diagnosed as having tarsal navicular osteonecrosis. The following data were extracted from medical records: age, comorbidities, alcohol and tobacco consumption, history of trauma, clinical presentation, imaging modalities performed, treatment protocol, and outcomes.
Results: Five women with a mean age of 51.4 years (range, 39–68 years) were enrolled in the study. Mechanical pain and deformity over the dorsum of the midfoot was the main clinical presentation. Rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and spondyloarthritis were reported by three patients. Radiographs revealed bilateral distribution in one patient. Three patients underwent computed tomography. It showed a fragmentation of the navicular bone in two cases.Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in one patient showing flattening of the lateral aspect of the navicular bone with signal abnormalities. Talonaviculocuneiform arthrodesis was performed in all of the patients.
Conclusions: Mueller-Weiss disease–like changes may occur in patients with an underlying inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis.
Malignant melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation is extremely rare. We report a case of periungual osteocartilaginous melanoma (OCM) on the right hallux. A 59-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing mass with drainage on his right great toe after treatment of ingrown toenail and infection 3 months earlier. Physical examination showed a 2.0×1.5×1.0-cm, malodorous, erythematous, dusky, granuloma-like mass along the fibular border of the right hallux. Pathologic evaluation of the excisional biopsy revealed diffuse epithelioid and chondroblastoma-like melanocytes with atypia and pleomorphism in the dermis with strong SOX10 immunostaining. The lesion was diagnosed as osteocartilaginous melanoma. The patient was referred to a surgical oncologist for further treatment. Osteocartilaginous melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma that needs to be differentiated from chondroblastoma and other lesions. Immunostains for SOX10, H3K36M, and SATB2 are helpful for the differential diagnosis.
Background: Studies on the sensory perception of mass mostly focus on the hands rather than the feet. The aim of our study is to measure how accurately runners can perceive additional shoe mass in comparison to a control shoe (CS) while running, and moreover, whether there is a learning effect in the perception of mass. Indoor running shoes were categorized as a CS (283 g) and shoes with four additional masses: shoe 2 (+50 g), shoe 3 (+150 g), shoe 4 (+250 g), and shoe 5 (+315 g).
Methods: There were 22 participants in the experiment, which was divided into two sessions. In session 1, participants ran on a treadmill for 2 min with the CS and then put on one set of weighted shoes and ran for another 2 min at a preferred velocity. A binary question was used after the pair test. This process was repeated for all the shoes to compare them with the CS.
Results: Based on our statistical analysis (mixed effect logistic regression), the independent variable (ie, mass) did have a significant effect on perceived mass (F 4,193 = 10.66, P < .0001), whereas repeating the task did not show a significant learning effect (F 1,193 = 1.06, P = .30).
Conclusions: An increase of 150 g is the just-noticeable difference among other weighted shoes and the Weber fraction is equal to 0.53 (150:283 g). Learning effect did not improve by repeating the task in two sessions in the same day. This study facilitates our understanding about sense of force and enhances multibody simulation in running.
Tourniquet failure is attributed to inadequate tourniquet pressure, inadequate exsanguination, failure to compress medullary vessels within the bone, and incompressible calcified arteries. We herein report a case of massive bleeding using a properly functioning tourniquet in a patient who had bilateral calcified femoral arteries. When incompressible calcified arteries are present, the inflated tourniquet cuff fails to adequately compress the underlying artery, yet acts as an efficient venous tourniquet, which leads to an increase in bleeding. It is therefore critical to preoperatively confirm the effectiveness of the tourniquet in arterial occlusion in patients with severe arterial calcification.
A 55-year-old woman with a complicated infected nonunion after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis is presented. The patient initially underwent cross-screw fixation for the treatment of hallux rigidus that resulted in joint infection and hardware loosening. A staged surgical approach was undertaken by means of initial hardware removal with implementation of an antibiotic cement spacer followed by revision arthrodesis with interposition of tricortical iliac crest autograft. This case report aims to highlight an accepted surgical approach to address an infected nonunion at the level of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
Background: Although tarsal coalition represents the most common cause of peroneal spastic flatfoot, its existence cannot be verified in several cases. In some patients with rigid flatfoot, no cause can be detected after clinical, laboratory, and radiologic examination, and the condition is called idiopathic peroneal spastic flatfoot (IPSF). This study aimed to present our experience with surgical management and outcomes in patients with IPSF.
Methods: Seven patients with IPSF, who were operated on between 2016 and 2019, and followed for at least 12 months were included, whereas those with known causes, such as tarsal coalition or other causes (eg, traumatic) were excluded. All patients were followed up for 3 months with botulinum toxin injection and cast immobilization as a routine protocol, and clinical improvement was not achieved. The Evans procedure and grafting with tricortical iliac crest bone graft in five patients and subtalar arthrodesis in two patients were performed. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale scores and Foot and Ankle Disability Index scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively from all patients.
Results: On physical examination, all feet manifested rigid pes planus with varying degrees of hindfoot valgus and limited subtalar motion. Overall, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Foot and Ankle Disability Index scores significantly increased from 42 (range, 20–76) and 45 (range, 19–68) preoperatively (P = .018) to 85 (range, 67–97) and 84 (range, 67–99) (P = .043) at the final follow-up, respectively. No major intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed in any of the patients. All computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed no evidence of tarsal coalitions in any of the feet. All radiologic workups failed to demonstrate secondary signs of fibrous or cartilaginous coalitions.
Conclusions: Operative treatment seems to be a good option in the treatment of patients with IPSF who do not benefit from conservative treatment. In the future, it is recommended to investigate the ideal treatment options for this group of patients.