Background: Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a devastating complication of some diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system. Initial subjective and objective presentation of the disease can be variable. Common among all presentations seems to be uncontrolled inflammation yielding dislocations and/or fractures. The exact cause remains the subject of much debate.
Methods: Our study retrospectively looks at the function of olfactory function in consecutive patients with CN and compares the findings with a nonaffected population. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was used to assess olfaction and document microsomia.
Results: Twenty consecutive patients presenting with CN demonstrated significant (P < .0001) microsomia when compared to an unaffected population with diabetes.
Conclusions: Microsomia is strongly associated with CN. This finding may be correlated to voltage-gated sodium 1.7 channel impairment and appears to be a candidate precursor for the development of CN.
Background: Side-to-side stress imbalance has been suggested as a risk factor for injury in unilateral sports. The leading leg is suggested to be essential in sports rehabilitation for the return of athletes to the playground. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic pedobarometric and spatiotemporal gait differences between the leading and nonleading feet of male handball players.
Methods: Thirty healthy elite male handball players (mean ± SD: age, 31.7 ± 2.99 years; height, 177.5 ± 6.0 cm; weight, 78.9 ± 6.3 kg; body mass index, 25.0 ± 0.7) participated in this study; all of the participants were backcourt and pivot handball players. The assessments were performed using the Tekscan Walkway pressure sensor to detect and compare the variables of interest between the leading and nonleading feet during normal walking at a self-selected speed.
Results: Maximum force, peak pressure (total and forefoot pressure), foot width, single-limb support time, and step velocity were significantly increased in the leading foot compared with the nonleading foot. In addition, maximum force, foot width, and total peak pressure showed moderate positive significant correlations with body mass index.
Conclusions: The differences in the pedobarometric and spatiotemporal gait parameters may result from the physiologic and mechanical demands that are put on the leading foot of handball players, which need more rehabilitation attention and protection to avoid expected injuries.
This case describes delayed treatment of a medial talonavicular dislocation with a shear fracture of the talar head, a comminuted posterior talar process fracture, and an intra-articular cuboid fracture with subtle medial displacement of the calcaneocuboid joint and the associated treatment. The injury was sustained in a 35-year-old man following a high-energy motor vehicle accident. Three weeks following the injury, delayed treatment was achieved following an attempted closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by open reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient was able to return to work and regular activities pain-free without complications. Several associated injuries have been described with isolated talonavicular dislocations. This case reviews the technique and care surrounding this injury pattern and its delayed treatment.
Desmoplastic fibroblastomas are benign and uncommon soft-tissue tumors. They are typically slow-growing, painless masses found in adult men. Rapidly growing masses have been previously reported, but are more rare. A 56-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing mass in his left foot, which was diagnosed as a desmoplastic fibroblastoma after pathologic evaluation. Although many case reports have been published in the dermatology literature, it is important to be aware of this benign neoplasm to avoid confusion with other rapidly growing malignant soft-tissue masses reported in the podiatry literature.
Background: Physical activity is important throughout the lifespan. Racket sports are popular with older adults and offer important social benefits. It is unknown how the physiologic changes attributable to aging affect lower limb loading during multidirectional sports and how this may influence footwear requirements. The purpose of this work was to explore the footwear needs and preferences of older adults in racket sports to inform footwear design and development.
Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted online with 16 participants (56–92 years of age) who typically play racket sports at least once per week. Thematic analysis was used to group basic themes into organizing themes.
Results: The organizing themes were comfort (general comfort, pain-free, and cushioning), functionality (relating to the structure of the shoe and performance), and choice (mostly around the appearance of the shoe). Comfort was a key priority for the majority of participants, although it was often stressed that the footwear must also be supportive. Support was frequently defined in relation to preventing ankle sprains; however, when asked directly about managing injury risk, avoiding certain shots and appropriate grip were mentioned over support. More than half of participants reported needing a wide-fitting sport shoe, which limited the footwear selection available to them.
Conclusions: This study provides novel insight into the footwear requirements of active older adults, which can inform the development of footwear to facilitate safe and pain-free participation in sport for all.
Background: To evaluate complications and risk factors for nonunion in patients with diabetes after ankle fracture.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 139 patients with diabetes and ankle fractures followed for 1 year. We evaluated the incidence of wounds, infections, nonunions, Charcot’s arthropathy, and amputations. We determined Fracture severity (unimalleolar, bimalleolar, trimalleolar), nonunion, and Charcot’s arthropathy from radiographs. Nonunion was defined as a fracture that did not heal within 6 months of fracture. Analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables, and χ2 tests to compare dichotomous variables, with α = 0.05. Logistic regression was performed with a binary variable representing nonunions as the dependent variable.
Results: Complications were common: nonunion (24.5%), Charcot’s arthropathy (7.9%), wounds (5.2%), wound site infection (17.3%), and leg amputation (2.2%). Patients with nonunions were more likely to be male (55.9% versus 29.5%; P = .005), have sensory neuropathy (76.5% versus 32.4%; P < .001), have end-stage renal disease (17.6% versus 2.9%; P < .001), and use insulin (73.5% versus 40.1%; P < .001), β-blockers (58.8% versus 39.0%; P = .049), and corticosteroids (26.5% versus 9.5%; P = .02). Among patients with nonunion, there was an increased risk of wounds (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–7.73), infection (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.72–5.61), amputation (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 1.01–100.23), and long-term bracing (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 3.8–23.8). In the logistic regression analysis, four factors were associated with fracture nonunion: dialysis (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.7–35.2), insulin use (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–7.4), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.4–18.0), and ankle fracture severity (bimalleolar or trimalleolar fracture) (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.4).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate risk factors for nonunions: dialysis, insulin use, and fracture severity after ankle fracture in patients with diabetes.
Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket of the first metatarsal, also known as first enclosed metatarsal, is a rare congenital disorder characterized by an abnormal development in the length of the first metatarsal ray because of the asymmetric presence of a longitudinal epiphyseal bracket. This causes interruption in the lengthways development of the affected bone, which becomes squat and short, with a trapezoidal or triangular shape, leading to a hallux varus deformity. First enclosed metatarsal occurs in 2% to 14% of all congenital defects in the hands and feet; with bilateralism in 75% of cases and a greater incidence in male patients. The deformity is classified as a differentiation defect; it is frequently associated with abnormalities such as syndactyly or polydactyly. There are different surgical treatments reported in the literature. Most of them are aimed at the excision of the epiphyseal bracket before complete skeletal maturity and frequently in the first year of life to promote a normal lengthways growth of the bone. In this study, the authors present three cases of bilateral first enclosed metatarsal in which the surgical treatment, aimed at lengthening the first metatarsal ray by using the Penning Minifixator, was instead carried out at the end of growth. This different surgical approach allowed the planning of a surgical operation involving both the skeletal structures and the surrounding soft tissue.
Osteonecrosis is acknowledged as a relatively uncommon disorder caused by various factors, including autoimmune diseases, drug-induced diseases, inherited metabolic disorders, coagulation disorders, and underlying malignancies. To our knowledge, no previous research has investigated osteonecrosis stemming from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Herein, we report a rare case of postperipheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–induced multifocal osteonecrosis in the foot and ankle that demonstrated a low serpiginous peripheral signal on T1-weighted images and a double-line sign on fat-suppressed or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Conservative treatment was applied, and the patient was mostly recuperated after 6 months.