Background: Chronic, nonhealing wounds are a growing health-care problem in the United States, affecting more than 6.5 million patients annually and costing the health-care system over $25 billion. Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and venous leg ulcers (VLUs), are often difficult to treat, and patients commonly fail to heal even with the most advanced therapies. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of the synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix in the treatment of complex chronic nonhealing lower-extremity ulcers refractory to advanced therapies.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 20 patients with a total of 23 wounds (DFUs, n = 18; VLUs, n = 5) who underwent treatment using the synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix was conducted. The majority of ulcers (78%) included in this study were refractory to one or multiple previous advanced wound therapies and therefore considered difficult-to-heal ulcers with high failure risk for future therapies.
Results: Subjects had a mean wound age of 16 months and presented with 132 secondary comorbidities and 65 failed interventions and therapies. Treatment of VLUs with the synthetic matrix resulted in complete closure of 100% of the wounds over 244 ± 153 days with an average of 10.8 ± 5.5 applications. Treatment of DFUs with the synthetic matrix resulted in complete closure of 94% of the wounds over 122 ± 69 days with 6.7 ± 3.9 applications.
Conclusions: Treatment with the synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix resulted in the closure of 96% of complex chronic ulcers refractory to existing therapies. The inclusion of the synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix in wound care programs provides a critical and needed solution for costly, long-standing refractory wounds.
Nail pyogenic granulomas are common benign vascular lesions often occurring after trauma. A variety of treatment modalities exist, including topical therapies and surgical excision, although both have their pros and cons. In this communication, we describe the case of a 7-year-old boy with repeated toe trauma, who developed a large nail bed pyogenic granuloma after undergoing surgical debridement and nail bed repair. He was treated with 3 months of topical 0.5% timolol maleate, resulting in complete resolution of the pyogenic granuloma and minimal nail deformity.
Background: Ultraviolet (UV)-A therapy is a simple, inexpensive, and effective modality for wound healing, with tremendous potential to improve healing and reduce clinical infections in a number of clinical settings. To date, application of UV-A relies on bulky and hard-to-dose lamps that provide inconsistent therapy, thus making it difficult to apply therapy that is appropriate for the patient.
Methods: This study was designed to test the effectiveness of a novel wound therapy device that combines UV-A with traditional negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) to promote wound healing. Furthermore, we tested the ability of fiberoptic UV-A delivery to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Finally, we assayed the level of DNA damage that results from UV-A as compared to established UV-C therapies. Wound healing studies were performed in a porcine model using an articulated therapy arm that allows for continued therapy administration over an extended time course. Negative-pressure wound therapy was administered alone or with UV-A fiberoptic therapy for 2 weeks. Dressings were changed twice a week, at which time wound area was assessed.
Results: Data demonstrate that UV-A with NPWT treatment of wounds results in greater healing than NPWT alone. Using the same therapy device, we demonstrate that exposure of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fiberoptic UV-A results in decreased colony area and number of both bacterial strains. Finally, we show that UV-A induces minimal DNA damage in human fibroblasts and no more DNA damage in wound tissue as compare to intact skin.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that UV-A can decrease bacterial proliferation and promote wound healing when coupled with NPWT.
Charcot Foot is often misdiagnosed because of its varied presentation that mimics other common disorders including tubercular rheumatism, complex regional pain syndrome or gout. We present a case of ankle swelling and discuss the differential diagnosis, radiological findings, and management. We also discuss the approach to diagnosis and provide differences in clinical presentations, magnetic resonance imaging,and bone scan findings for various differentials considered for Charcot foot.
Background: A few studies have investigated the relationship between foot posture measures and plantar pressure parameters, but no study has investigated the correlation of foot posture measures with all primary parameters consisting of contact area (CA), maximum force (MF), and peak pressure (PP). We aimed to determine the relationship of the Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6) and navicular drop (ND) with plantar pressure parameters during static standing and preferred walking.
Methods: Seventy people were included. Navicular drop and the FPI-6 were used to assess foot posture. Plantar pressure parameters including CA, MF, and PP were recorded by a pressure-sensitive mat during barefoot standing and barefoot walking at preferred speed. All assessments were repeated three times and averaged. Pearson correlation coefficients below 0.300 were accepted as negligible and higher ones were interpreted.
Results: Navicular drop was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot and second metatarsal; also, the FPI-6 was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot (0.500 < r < 0.700). The other interpreted correlations were poor (0.300 < r < 0.500). Both measures were correlated with dynamic CA under the second and third metatarsals; dynamic CA and MF under the midfoot; and static CA, MF, and PP under the first metatarsal and hallux (P < .01). Navicular drop was also correlated with dynamic MF under the first metatarsal and dynamic CA under the fourth metatarsal (P < .01). Furthermore, ND was correlated with static CA and PP under the second metatarsal and static PP under the fifth metatarsal (P < .01). The FPI-6 was also correlated with dynamic MF and PP under the hallux (P < .01).
Conclusions: The correlations between foot posture measures and plantar pressure variables are poor to moderate. The measures may be useful in the clinical assessment of medial forefoot problems related to prolonged standing and midfoot complaints related to high force during walking. Furthermore, the FPI-6 may provide valuable data regarding hallux complaints related to the high loads during walking.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that is very similar to human Staphylococcus pathogens, particularly multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent reports have indicated that S pseudintermedius is easily transmitted between pets (mainly dogs) and owners because of these similarities. Although this pathogen has been associated with diabetic foot infections, it has not yet been described in the podiatric medical literature. In this case report, we present a diabetic foot infection in a 61-year-old man that was refractory to multiple rounds of antibiotic drug therapy. Deep wound cultures eventually grew S pseudintermedius, which was the first known case of this pathogen reported in our hospital system.
Background: To compare pathogens involved in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) and pedal osteomyelitis (OM) in patients with and without diabetes with puncture wounds to the foot.
Methods: We evaluated 113 consecutive patients between June 1, 2011, and March 31, 2019, with foot infection (SSTIs and OM) from a puncture injury sustained to the foot. Eighty-three patients had diabetes and 30 did not. We evaluated the bacterial pathogens in patients with SSTIs and pedal OM.
Results: Polymicrobial infections were more common in patients with diabetes mellitus (83.1% versus 53.3%; P = .001). The most common pathogen for SSTIs and OM in patients with diabetes was Staphylococcus aureus (SSTIs, 50.7%; OM, 32.3%), whereas in patients without diabetes it was Pseudomonas (25%) for SSTIs. Anaerobes (9.4%) and fungal infection (3.1%) were uncommon. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in only 5.8% of people with diabetes.
Conclusions: The most common bacterial pathogen in both SSTIs and pedal OM was S aureus in patients with diabetes. Pseudomonas species was the most common pathogen in people without diabetes with SSTIs.
Background: Lateral ankle sprain is an injury that often occurs during sports or daily life activities. Athletic tape and kinesiology tape applications are among the external support treatment options especially for athletes to support the ankle and protect it from recurrent sprains. We sought to compare the kinematic stabilization effects of different ankle taping applications on the ankle joint during drop landing in individuals with a history of unilateral lateral ankle injury.
Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 30 volunteers with unilateral ankle injury were evaluated. The participants were asked to land on one leg on the involved side and the contralateral side from a 30-cm-high platform. The same practice was repeated after applying kinesiology tape and rigid tape to the injured foot. Kinematic analysis of the foot and ankle was performed by recording three-dimensional spatial position information at a speed of 240 frames per second using infrared cameras.
Results: The highest inversion angles of the involved foot at initial contact and 150 msec after initial contact were higher than those of the uninvolved side (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively). There was no significant difference in ankle kinematic values in the involved foot among kinesiology taping, athletic taping, and no taping applications (P = .74).
Conclusions: People with lateral ankle sprains show reduced inversion during landing. There were no significant differences among kinesiology taping, athletic taping, and no taping on the injured foot in terms of ankle kinematics. Care should be taken when using taping materials as protective measures for sports activities.
Background: We evaluated the cost of treating neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease by using medical and hospital claims records submitted for reimbursement to payers (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid).
Methods: Adjudicated claims and remittance data on claims that include submitted charges, line items paid by insurers directly to providers and patient payments of copays, deductibles and co-insurance were used. Eligible patients from a commercial database containing more than 60% of US patients with health insurance were analyzed. Patient selection, performed using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, yielded a study population of 42,837 unique anonymized patients.
Results: Using the metric of “submitted charges” to overcome differences in levels of reimbursement across insurance payers and Medicare/Medicaid, we identified 34,348 patients with ulcers with an average treatment cost of $94,100 per patient ($41,800 annualized) The costliest ulcer subtype was nonpressure ulcer of the heel/midfoot among 13,184 patients with $121,400 per patient ($53,900 annualized), 29% higher than across all ulcer types. The subset of 22,281 ulcer patients who also had a surgical procedure incurred costs of $121,000 per patient ($53,800 annualized). The costliest surgical codes were complications of vascular prosthetic devices, implants, grafts among 6444 patients with $146,900 per patient ($65,300 annualized). The combination of most expensive ulcer and most expensive surgery yielded a cohort of 2355 patients with the highest average cost of $177,400 per patient ($78,800 annualized).
Conclusions: The resource burden for management of neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease is substantial. Mitigating this burden may help reduce significant resource utilization.