The superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve traditionally courses through the anterolateral deep leg and pierces the deep crural fascia at the lower leg to divide into its terminal branches. Entrapment of the superficial fibular nerve is most commonly documented to occur at where it pierces the deep fascia, and numerous etiologies causing entrapment are described. In this case report, we describe an unusual cause of entrapment from a tertiary branch of the superficial fibular nerve taking a circumflex course and wrapping around the secondary branch of the main nerve. This was successfully treated by surgical excision. To the best of our knowledge, this cause of entrapment has not been described in the literature at the time of this publication.
Following partial bone resection for osteomyelitis, continued osteomyelitis in the remaining bone is common and problematic. Shortcomings in available surgical techniques to combat this also contribute to this problem. Presented are two case studies using a solution to this problem with a different type of bone void filler as a carrier vehicle for delivering antibiotics into the remaining infected bone to eradicate any residual bacteria in the remaining bone.
Cushing's syndrome is an uncommon clinical condition most frequently presenting with central obesity, facial rounding, proximal muscle weakness, and skin thinning. The objective of this case report is to highlight an unusual presentation of Cushing's syndrome. A 35-year-old woman presented to the orthopedic clinic with a 1-year history of foot pain without any history of trauma. Radiography of the foot showed multiple metatarsal fractures. Evaluation for secondary causes of reduced bone strength revealed that the patient had Cushing's disease, although other typical signs and symptoms were not remarkable. It can be concluded that Cushing's syndrome should always be included in the differential diagnosis of foot fracture without any evidence of trauma.
Stiff equinocavus foot deformities are challenging clinical entities that may be treated with osteotomies and extensive soft-tissue release. The most common causes of such lesions are neglected trauma and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; other causes include burns, neurologic diseases, and compartment leg syndrome. Conventional treatments, including extensive soft-tissue release, osteotomies, and arthrodesis combined with or without internal splinting, may result in severe complications such as neurovascular or soft-tissue damage and shortening of the foot. The Ilizarov technique may be superior to the traditional approach, because it allows surgeons to apply gradual and titrated correction of individual components of complex deformities and results in minimal surgical morbidity without shortening of the foot. This is the first case report in the literature describing the simultaneous use of Cole osteotomy, combined with external Ilizarov hinged frame fixation, soft-tissue release, and Achilles tendon lengthening for the treatment of an extreme neglected stiff equinocavus foot deformity.
In this study, we present the management of an intra-articular fracture in a 13-year-old boy with WAGR syndrome, an extremely rare genetic disorder. The goal of this study was to provide possible solutions to the complex pain management requirements presenting in the setting of trauma to the right lower extremity. Given the scarcity of literature available with regard to this condition, we aim to not only increase awareness of the disease but also provide insight into trauma management and expected outcomes.
A rare and unusual case of plasma cell dyscrasia of the calcaneus is presented. Clinically, the patient had a draining and painful ulcer that was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care but failed to show any signs of healing. Radiographic images showed cystic changes of the calcaneus in the vicinity of the ulcer. Blood work was negative for bone and soft-tissue infection, but uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. Nuclear bone scan showed increased uptake in the calcaneus suggestive of osteomyelitis. One possible differential diagnosis was an intraosseous gouty tophus deposit. Not convinced that this was either a bone infection or gout, the author performed a bone biopsy. Pathologic evaluation indicated plasma cell dyscrasia. Continued wound care healed the ulcer completely, with resolution of pain of his heel. Oncology/hematology was consulted, and 16 months after biopsy, he remains asymptomatic.
Intramuscular lipoma is a rare subset of a more common soft-tissue tumor, lipoma. The etiology is unknown. It is a rare soft-tissue tumor with an overall incidence of less than 1% of all lipomas. Magnetic resonance imaging tends to be the imaging modality of choice, used for surgical preparation. Widely accepted treatment involves local excision. The author presents a case study involving a patient with an abnormally large, recurrent intramuscular lipoma of the left hallux, surgically excised and confirmed by pathology reports. iscussion includes a review of intramuscular lipoma. A review of the literature revealed only two previous reports.
The management guidelines of gunshot wound (GSW) injuries to the lower extremities have primarily been described more recently in the literature. A navicular fracture with adjacent joint involvement is presented from a GSW with initial external fixation management to prevent loss of anatomical alignment and successful staged definitive treatment with internal fixation. Based on previous experiences with rearfoot joint involvement from GSW injuries, we were able to direct definitive treatment with arthrodesis of violated joints. After a 1-year follow-up, the patient has returned to normal activities without any limitations. This case report demonstrates a stepwise approach to management of an open navicular fracture secondary to a GSW.
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor is the common term used to describe a group of soft-tissue tumors that share a common etiologic link. These tumors are relatively infrequent in the foot and ankle, and occasionally they may be the cause of destruction of the adjacent bone structures. We report the imaging appearance and pathologic findings of two patients with localized tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the forefoot. Both of these patients underwent surgical gross total resection. However, one of the patients experienced a recurrence. Their clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features, with their treatment protocol, are summarized retrospectively, and related literature is reviewed in an attempt to enhance the understanding of these tumor lesions. Clinicians should perform a careful preoperative and postoperative examination and complete tumor surgical resection with the aim of reducing local recurrence.
We present a case of a pediatric patient with a history of spina bifida who presented to the emergency department of a large Army medical treatment facility with a partially amputated right fifth digit she sustained while sleeping with the family canine. There are several reports in the popular press that suggest that an animal, particularly a dog, can detect human infection, and it is hypothesized that the toe chewing was triggered by a wound infection. This case provides an opportunity to provide further education in caring for foot wounds in patients with spina bifida.