Background: More than half of opioid misusers last obtained opioids from a friend or relative, a problematic reflection of the commonly known opioid reservoir maintained by variable prescription rates and, notably, excessive postoperative prescription. We examined the postoperative opioid-prescribing approaches among podiatric physicians.
Methods: We administered a scenario-based, anonymous, online questionnaire via an online survey platform. The questionnaire consisted of five patient–foot surgery scenarios aimed at discerning opioid-prescribing approaches. Respondents were asked how many opioid “pills” (dosage units) that they would prescribe at the time of surgery. We divided respondents into two opioid-prescribing approach groups: one-size-fits-all (prescribed the same dosage units regardless of the scenario) and patient-centric and procedure-focused (prescribed varied amounts of opioid dosage units based on the patient’s opioid history and the procedure provided in each scenario). We used the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the difference between the opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery by the two groups.
Results: Approximately half of the respondents used a one-size-fits-all postoperative opioid-prescribing approach. Podiatric physicians who used a patient-centric and procedure-focused approach reported prescribing significantly fewer opioid dosage units in scenarios 1 (partial toe amputation; –9.1; P = .0087) and 2 (incision and drainage with partial fifth-ray resection; –12.3; P = .0024), which represented minor procedures with opioid-naive patients.
Conclusions: Podiatric physicians who used a one-size-fits-all opioid-prescribing approach prescribed more postoperative opioid dosage units regardless of the scenario. Given that the patient population requiring foot surgery is diverse and may have multiple comorbidities, the management of postoperative pain, likewise, should be diverse and nuanced. The patient-centric and procedure-focused approach is suited to limit excess prescribing while defending the physician-patient relationship.
Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the eccrine sweat gland. This malignancy occurs most commonly in the lower extremities. It tends to occur in patients aged 60 to 80 years, affecting men and women equally. We present the case of a 62-year-old man with a lesion on the left foot. The diagnosis of the initial biopsy was squamous cell carcinoma. Six months later, the lesion reoccurred, and a second biopsy confirmed it to be eccrine porocarcinoma.
Background: A common cause of posterior ankle pain is posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS). Many studies about PAIS have been conducted on special groups such as athletes and dancers; there has been no previous study of a nonathletic population. This study aimed to evaluate the causes and treatment methods of PAIS in the nonathletic population and compare it with the athletic population.
Methods: A retrospective review was performed and 28 of 46 patients (60.9%) recovered from two-staged conservative therapy. In the 18 patients (39.1%) who did not benefit from 3 months of conservative treatment, hindfoot endoscopy was applied. Patient data, including sex, age, occupation, and sports activity level, were recorded. Visual analog scale, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot, and Tegner scores were recorded. Patient satisfaction was assessed with a 4-point Likert scale. Complications were recorded.
Results: Mean follow-up was 27.4 months. At final follow-up, the AOFAS hindfoot score had significantly improved from 66.4 to 96.8 (P < .001). The Tegner score improved significantly from 4.6 to 8.8 (P < .001). The visual analog scale score was 6.4 and increased to 0.9 (P < .001). Using the 4-point Likert scale for patient satisfaction, 13 (72.2%) stated that the surgical procedure was excellent and five (27.8%) good. Mean time to return to work was 4.2 weeks. Sural nerve dysesthesia was seen in two patients (11.1%).
Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate PAIS in the nonathletic population. Conservative treatment showed good results as nearly two-thirds of the patients recovered. Hindfoot endoscopy in those not responding to conservative therapy is a successful treatment with low complication rates.
Background: Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) occurs when an individual suffers from tibial nerve compression at the tarsal tunnel. Symptoms of TTS may include pain, burning, or tingling on the bottom of the foot and into the toes. Tarsal tunnel syndrome can be divided into distal and proximal TTS. Furthermore, a high tarsal tunnel syndrome (HTTS) has also been described as a fascial entrapment proximal to the laciniate ligament at the level of the high ankle. Multiple risk factors, including obesity, have been said to be associated with TTS. This study aimed to determine the frequency of obesity in the form of body mass index (BMI) with HTTS.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a nonprobability sampling method retrospectively surveyed the BMI of 73 patients whose clinical presentation suggested HTTS or TTS, and in which electrodiagnostic testing found HTTS. The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 90 years (mean, 56.4 years). Thirty-five patients were men and 38 patients were women.
Results: Based on BMI, nine patients with HTTS had normal weight (12.9%), 17 patients were overweight (23.3%), and the remaining 47 patients were obese (64.3%).
Conclusions: The frequency of obesity in the form of BMI was 64.3% in patients with HTTS, which is a significantly high correlation.
Background: Because ultrasound measurement of plantar fascia thickness is widely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of plantar fasciitis, it is important to understand and minimize the errors that occur with this measurement. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize studies reporting on intrarater and interrater reliability of ultrasound measurement of plantar fascia thickness.
Methods: After comprehensive searches in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, 11 studies involving 238 healthy participants and 68 patients with pathologic foot disorders were included.
Results: Seven of 11 studies revealed a low risk of bias. Most of the studies reported good to excellent intrarater and interrater reliability for ultrasound measurement of plantar fascia thickness (intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.77–0.98; interrater ICC, 0.76–0.98). In addition, two studies on intrarater reliability and one study on interrater reliability showed moderate reliability (ICCs, 0.65, 0.67, and 0.59, respectively). Overall, the standard error of measurement was less than 5% and did not exceed 7%.
Conclusions: The findings of this review suggest that ultrasound measurement of plantar fascia thickness is reliable in terms of both relative and absolute reliability. Reliability can be optimized by using the average of multiple measurements and an experienced operator.
Ankle fractures have been well documented and are common, especially in the elderly, behind hip and distal radius fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the standard of treatment for displaced and unstable ankle fractures. Traditionally, ankle fractures in the elderly population have been treated with nonoperative methods; however, nonoperative methods have been associated with increased mortality. Thus, there has been a shift toward operative management for the elderly and less healthy patients. However, these patients often present with more comorbidities that make them not ideal candidates for ORIF of the fracture. Minimally invasive intramedullary nailing of the fibula has gained popularity in recent years for the treatment of displaced ankle fractures. A 72-year-old man presented to the clinic with left ankle pain with a duration of 2 weeks. Radiography revealed a displaced fracture of the left fibula at the level of the ankle joint. This case report documents the surgical treatment of a displaced distal fibula fracture using minimally invasive intramedullary nailing of the fibula. At 4 months’ follow-up, the patient was walking with minimal assistance and weightbearing as tolerated. Left untreated, displaced ankle fractures can be very debilitating, with increased mortality and morbidity, especially in the elderly population. Thus, early diagnosis and surgical treatment of displaced ankle fractures are imperative. The purpose of this report was to raise awareness of minimally invasive fibular nailing as an alternative to ORIF in the treatment of displaced ankle fractures in the elderly.
Nevoid melanoma (NeM) is a rare variant of malignant melanoma characterized by slight cellular atypia, polymorphism, and incomplete maturation. It most frequently occurs on the trunk and arms but rarely on the foot. Here, we report a subungual NeM of the right hallux. A 65-year-old man presented with severe pain of 6 months’ duration to his right great toe following self-treatment for an ingrown nail. He was evaluated and treated with debridement of the toenail at an urgent medical center 3 months prior. However, this had not relieved his pain. The patient also noticed discoloration of his distal great toe over the past 3 months. Removal of part of the ingrown nail revealed a pigmented mass extending distally from the matrix. Surgical excision of the mass was performed because of the concern for malignancy. The diagnosis of NeM was based on histologic analysis along with enhanced diagnostic modalities. The patient was further treated with surgical amputation of the great toe and anti–programmed cell death-1 therapy. The patient had no relapse at 1-year follow-up. Nevoid melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma on the toes, which needs to be differentiated from a nevus with atypia, with a variety of modalities including cellular and molecular profiling. The optimal treatment is amputation.
Opioid treatment agreements are written agreements between physicians and patients that represent strategies enumerating the risks associated with opioid medications. These opioid treatment agreements set expectations and obligations, as well as identify responsibilities for both patient and prescriber for opioid therapy. Some critics assert that these agreements are cumbersome and degrade the patient once they enter into these agreements. A systemic literature search and review using the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) tool was used to find citations describing opioid treatment agreements and their use. Then eligible and appropriate citations were dissected and analyzed. Using the available federal and state opioid prescribing policies, best practice guidelines as well as positive aspects of reviewed literature citations and avoiding bias, degrading, or macroaggression language, a non-cumbersome opioid treatment agreement specific to podiatric medicine was created. A balance argument for the use of opioid treatment agreements to avoid opioid use disorder that is grounded in clinical literature and commentaries are presented. A one-page sensible opioid treatment agreement specific to podiatric medicine, which is similar to more complex cumbersome ones that are found in the literature, and that may be used as part of any podiatric procedural or surgical inform consent, was created and is presented for review. The perception of defending opioid treatment agreements as documents of disclosure to assist patients in their autonomy was offered. Building on the systemic review findings and concept of using elements of disclosure, a model for an analgesic treatment as a one-page informational document to enhance podiatric physicians to create a specific individual analgesic treatment agreement mirroring the scope of podiatric practices that can be incorporated into procedural and surgical inform consent documents was offered.