Background: It is well-known that hallux valgus (HV) alters foot biomechanics. In different populations, HV and postural stability has been studied, but HV and the adolescent ballet dancer has not been studied. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of HV on adolescent ballet dancers’ balance and to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescent ballet dancers with HV.
Methods: Female ballet dancers aged 8 to 16 years were screened prospectively and divided into two groups: those with HV (group 1) and those without HV (group 2). The HV diagnosis was made clinically. The groups were compared according to balance parameters and HRQOL questionnaires.
Results: In group 1 (n = 31) and group 2 (n = 24), the mean age was 11.6 years and 12.2 years, respectively. Mean first metatarsophalangeal angle was 13.4° (range, 10°–15°) in group 2 and 19.8° (range, 16°–25°) in group 1. A statistically significant difference was found according to the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test results in the comparison of HV angle between groups. According to Spearman rho correlation analysis, it was determined that the increase in HV angle caused deterioration in the flamingo static balance test (r = 0.552; P = .019). No significant relationship was found between HRQOL questionnaires and the presence of HV (P > .05).
Conclusions: Adolescent ballet dancers experience static balance impairment due to HV angle increase. Clinical measurement of HV and application of balance parameters made easy without need of set ups to perform evaluation with high numbers of participants in concordance with the literature.
Hammertoe deformities are among the most common conditions treated by foot and ankle surgeons. Many different types of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis fixation techniques have been used. These include implant fixation, absorbable fixation, screw fixation, two-pin fixation, and single–Kirschner wire fixation. Each of these has their own set of associated advantages and disadvantages. One of the most common techniques to address hammertoe deformity is the use of Kirschner wires. Although Kirschner wires have been reliable and produced good outcomes, there are some drawbacks associated with their use. Some disadvantages include wire failure (bending/breaking), infection, and patient anxiety associated with removal. One of the more challenging aspects with using a single Kirschner wire for fixation is stability. Pistoning and rotational instability may occur with single–Kirschner wire use. Both pistoning and lack of rotational control can lead to nonunion, fibrous union, malunion, and ultimately patient dissatisfaction. The suturedesis technique is a surgical option that may be considered when a surgeon attempts to address these disadvantages. The authors believe this technique can adequately bring stability to the frontal plane and eliminate pistoning, which may lead to better fusion rates, better postoperative alignment, and better patient satisfaction. This article outlines the authors’ surgical technique of suturedesis in correcting hammertoe deformity.
Drug-based treatment of superficial fungal infections, such as onychomycosis, is not the only defense. Sanitization of footwear such as shoes, socks/stockings, and other textiles is integral to the prevention of recurrence and reduction of spread for superficial fungal mycoses. The goal of this review was to examine the available methods of sanitization for footwear and textiles against superficial fungal infections. A systematic literature search of various sanitization devices and methods that could be applied to footwear and textiles using PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE was performed. Fifty-four studies were found relevant to the different methodologies, devices, and techniques of sanitization as they pertain to superficial fungal infections of the feet. These included topics of basic sanitization, antifungal and antimicrobial materials, sanitization chemicals and powder, laundering, ultraviolet, ozone, nonthermal plasma, microwave radiation, essential oils, and natural plant extracts. In the management of onychomycosis, it is necessary to think beyond treatment of the nail, as infections enter through the skin. Those prone to onychomycosis should examine their environment, including surfaces, shoes, and socks, and ensure that proper sanitization is implemented.
Background: It is important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of schoolchildren by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it is difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results that can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study was to use principal component analysis (PCA) to predict the main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview, and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 schoolchildren were included in the study (mean ± SD: age, 10.58 ± 1.27 years; body mass index, 18.86 ± 4.33). During the research, a pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distributions, load and surface areas, pressure-time integrals, weight ratios, and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: The PCA yielded ten principal components that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: The numerous variables that affect static and dynamic plantar pressure distributions can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. Conservative treatment is often effective, but in many cases, invasive procedures may be required. Local corticosteroid injection is the most frequently used invasive technique and can be given under ultrasound (USG) or palpation guidance. We sought to compare the outcome of local corticosteroid injection by USG and palpation guidance in plantar fasciitis.
Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of patients who presented with heel pain between July 2015 and November 2016 and were screened for plantar fasciitis by USG. Patients with confirmed plantar fasciitis were managed conservatively for 4 weeks. The 60 consecutive patients not responding to the conservative treatment were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under USG guidance. Group B (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under palpation guidance. Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 weeks. We compared the visual analog scale score, plantar fascia thickness, and heel pad thickness in both groups.
Results: There was significant pain relief in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks of local corticosteroid injection, with greater relief noted in the USG-guided group. There was a significant decrement in plantar fascia thickness in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks; however, a greater decrement was observed in the USG-guided group. Neither group showed a significant difference in heel pad thickness after 3 and 6 weeks.
Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided injection provided better pain relief and a greater reduction in plantar fascia thickness than palpation-guided injection.
Background: Modified Bösch osteotomy, or distal linear metatarsal osteotomy (DLMO), is one of the minimally invasive correctional operations for hallux valgus deformity. Although the clinical and radiographic results of DLMO have been previously shown, the relationship between clinical outcomes using a validated patient-reported outcome measure and radiographic corrections have yet to be evaluated.
Methods: A total of 70 patients (97 feet) treated at our hospital were included in the study. The Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q) and radiographic data were evaluated at a minimum 1-year follow-up.
Results: Scores of all five SAFE-Q subscales showed a statistically significant improvement: pain and pain-related (from 63.3 to 86.6), physical functioning and daily living (from 81.3 to 92.7), social functioning (from 79.5 to 94.4), shoe-related (from 43.1 to 72.3), and general health and well-being (from 67.7 to 92.1). The mean hallux valgus angle improved from 39.1° to 9.3°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle improved from 16.6° to 7.0°. Recurrence and hallux varus at the final follow-up occurred in nine feet (9.3%) and 15 feet (15.5%), respectively. Four of the five SAFE-Q subscale scores improved significantly even in patients with hallux varus.
Conclusions: Distal linear metatarsal osteotomy improves foot-related quality of life in patients with hallux valgus deformity despite of the high rate of postoperative radiographic complication, especially hallux varus. Patients might be willing to tolerate mild hallux varus after DLMO, as indicated by patient-centered clinical results.
Phaeohyphomycosis is a spectrum of subcutaneous and systemic infections caused by a variety of dematiaceous fungi. It is an opportunistic disease with an increased incidence in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a pedal phaeohyphomycotic cyst in an immunocompetent adult male immigrant with the goal of highlighting its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and optimal treatment. A 57-year-old male immigrant from Panama presented with a painless, gradually increasing, large cystic lesion in his left foot, first intermetatarsal space, which had been present for many years. The patient was treated with surgical excision without antifungal therapy. Histologic analysis showed multiple granulomas composed of fibrin and necrosis in the centers surrounded by proliferative palisading fibroblasts admixed with heavily infiltrated neutrophils, plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Periodic acid-Schiff and Fontana-Masson stains revealed sporadic, scattered dematiaceous fungal hyphae and pseudohyphae among granulomatous tissues. The mass was diagnosed as a phaeohyphomycotic cyst. Polymerase chain reaction–based sequencing failed to identify the fungal species because of the rarity of the fungal elements in the granulomatous tissues. The patient had no recurrence at a follow-up of 2 years. A phaeohyphomycotic cyst is a rare entity that needs to be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions. Multiple modalities, including clinical evaluation, radiography, histologic analysis, microbiological culture, and nucleic acid sequencing, should be used for the final diagnosis. Surgical excision is an optimal treatment. Antifungal therapy should be considered based on the patient’s clinical manifestation, surgical excision, and immune functional status.
With the rapid development and use of new cancer therapies, cutaneous reactions related to systemic toxicities are becoming common. This case report establishes the importance of the podiatric physician’s role in the care of oncologic patients with plantar erythrodysesthesia taking a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Background: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of ingrown toenails in one of the biggest reference centers in Turkey.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted to Ufuk University Hospital with ingrown toenail between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019. Clinical characterstics and demographic features of all of the participants were evaluated, and then the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (patients ≤20 years old) and group 2 (patients >20 years old). These groups were compared in terms of clinical findings.
Results: Disease duration, body mass index, rate of medications for chronic diseases, and rate of joint diseases were significantly higher in group 2. Rates of hyperhidrosis and sudden weight gain were significantly higher in group 1 (P < .05). Severity of ingrown toenail was significantly different between groups (P = .006). Stage 1 was the most common stage in both groups, and rate of stage 3 was higher in group 1. Onycoshisis and was more common in group 1, and nail thickening was more common in group 2 (P < .05). Nail wire and aluminum chloride were the most common treatment modalities in groups 2 and 1, respectively (P < .05). Periungual edema, presence of pus, hypertrophy, and granulation were more common in group 1 (P < .05). Thin nail plate was more common in group 1, and normal and thick nail nail plates were more common in group 2 (P < .05).
Conclusions: Clinical characteristics of ingrown toenail vary between younger and older populations. Thus, an individualized approach is preferred in the management of ingrown toenail for different age groups.