Dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fifth toe is an uncommon injury and when diagnosed in the acute phase closed reduction is commonly an adequate treatment option. We describe a rare case of a 7-year-old patient presented with late diagnosed isolated dislocation of the PIP joint in the fifth toe. Although there are a few reported cases of late diagnosis combined fracture-dislocation of the toes in both adult and pediatric age group in the literature, belatedly diagnosed dislocation of the 5th toe without accompanying fracture in the pediatric population has not yet been reported as far as we know. This patient achieved good clinical outcomes following treatment via open reduction and internal fixation
Osteonecrosis is acknowledged as a relatively uncommon disorder caused by various factors, including autoimmune diseases, drug-induced diseases, inherited metabolic disorders, coagulation disorders, and underlying malignancies. To our knowledge, no previous research has investigated osteonecrosis stemming from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Herein, we report a rare case of postperipheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–induced multifocal osteonecrosis in the foot and ankle that demonstrated a low serpiginous peripheral signal on T1-weighted images and a double-line sign on fat-suppressed or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Conservative treatment was applied, and the patient was mostly recuperated after 6 months.
Heel spur is a chronic inflammatory condition causing pain and other typical symptoms. Therapeutic recommendations include the use of several drug or orthotic/physical therapies, performed alone or in combination. Surgery is usually reserved for refractory conditions. Radiotherapy has been shown to ensure good clinical outcomes in this clinical setting. A systematic review was performed to describe the feasibility and effectiveness of radiotherapy in the treatment of heel spur, evaluating its role in alleviating pain and consequently ensuring a better quality of life. A case report of 45-year-old patient treated for refractary right hindfoot pain was reported. A single fraction of 6 Gy RT was delivered with symptomatic complete response at 2 months observed. A systematic database search was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses) guidelines. The systematic review included studies describing heel spur treatment and providing complete information about radiotherapy. Fifteen articles published between 1996 and 2020 were reviewed. Study characteristic analysis resulted in seven prospective randomized studies and eight retrospective studies. Radiotherapy of painful heel spur seems to be safe and effective, with high response rates even at low doses and with an overall favorable toxicity profile. Predictive parameters and modern tailored treatment should be investigated with further studies.
Background: It is well-known that hallux valgus (HV) alters foot biomechanics. In different populations, HV and postural stability has been studied, but HV and the adolescent ballet dancer has not been studied. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of HV on adolescent ballet dancers’ balance and to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescent ballet dancers with HV.
Methods: Female ballet dancers aged 8 to 16 years were screened prospectively and divided into two groups: those with HV (group 1) and those without HV (group 2). The HV diagnosis was made clinically. The groups were compared according to balance parameters and HRQOL questionnaires.
Results: In group 1 (n = 31) and group 2 (n = 24), the mean age was 11.6 years and 12.2 years, respectively. Mean first metatarsophalangeal angle was 13.4° (range, 10°–15°) in group 2 and 19.8° (range, 16°–25°) in group 1. A statistically significant difference was found according to the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test results in the comparison of HV angle between groups. According to Spearman rho correlation analysis, it was determined that the increase in HV angle caused deterioration in the flamingo static balance test (r = 0.552; P = .019). No significant relationship was found between HRQOL questionnaires and the presence of HV (P > .05).
Conclusions: Adolescent ballet dancers experience static balance impairment due to HV angle increase. Clinical measurement of HV and application of balance parameters made easy without need of set ups to perform evaluation with high numbers of participants in concordance with the literature.
Hammertoe deformities are among the most common conditions treated by foot and ankle surgeons. Many different types of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis fixation techniques have been used. These include implant fixation, absorbable fixation, screw fixation, two-pin fixation, and single–Kirschner wire fixation. Each of these has their own set of associated advantages and disadvantages. One of the most common techniques to address hammertoe deformity is the use of Kirschner wires. Although Kirschner wires have been reliable and produced good outcomes, there are some drawbacks associated with their use. Some disadvantages include wire failure (bending/breaking), infection, and patient anxiety associated with removal. One of the more challenging aspects with using a single Kirschner wire for fixation is stability. Pistoning and rotational instability may occur with single–Kirschner wire use. Both pistoning and lack of rotational control can lead to nonunion, fibrous union, malunion, and ultimately patient dissatisfaction. The suturedesis technique is a surgical option that may be considered when a surgeon attempts to address these disadvantages. The authors believe this technique can adequately bring stability to the frontal plane and eliminate pistoning, which may lead to better fusion rates, better postoperative alignment, and better patient satisfaction. This article outlines the authors’ surgical technique of suturedesis in correcting hammertoe deformity.
Drug-based treatment of superficial fungal infections, such as onychomycosis, is not the only defense. Sanitization of footwear such as shoes, socks/stockings, and other textiles is integral to the prevention of recurrence and reduction of spread for superficial fungal mycoses. The goal of this review was to examine the available methods of sanitization for footwear and textiles against superficial fungal infections. A systematic literature search of various sanitization devices and methods that could be applied to footwear and textiles using PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE was performed. Fifty-four studies were found relevant to the different methodologies, devices, and techniques of sanitization as they pertain to superficial fungal infections of the feet. These included topics of basic sanitization, antifungal and antimicrobial materials, sanitization chemicals and powder, laundering, ultraviolet, ozone, nonthermal plasma, microwave radiation, essential oils, and natural plant extracts. In the management of onychomycosis, it is necessary to think beyond treatment of the nail, as infections enter through the skin. Those prone to onychomycosis should examine their environment, including surfaces, shoes, and socks, and ensure that proper sanitization is implemented.
Background: It is important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of schoolchildren by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it is difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results that can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study was to use principal component analysis (PCA) to predict the main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview, and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 schoolchildren were included in the study (mean ± SD: age, 10.58 ± 1.27 years; body mass index, 18.86 ± 4.33). During the research, a pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distributions, load and surface areas, pressure-time integrals, weight ratios, and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: The PCA yielded ten principal components that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: The numerous variables that affect static and dynamic plantar pressure distributions can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. Conservative treatment is often effective, but in many cases, invasive procedures may be required. Local corticosteroid injection is the most frequently used invasive technique and can be given under ultrasound (USG) or palpation guidance. We sought to compare the outcome of local corticosteroid injection by USG and palpation guidance in plantar fasciitis.
Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of patients who presented with heel pain between July 2015 and November 2016 and were screened for plantar fasciitis by USG. Patients with confirmed plantar fasciitis were managed conservatively for 4 weeks. The 60 consecutive patients not responding to the conservative treatment were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under USG guidance. Group B (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under palpation guidance. Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 weeks. We compared the visual analog scale score, plantar fascia thickness, and heel pad thickness in both groups.
Results: There was significant pain relief in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks of local corticosteroid injection, with greater relief noted in the USG-guided group. There was a significant decrement in plantar fascia thickness in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks; however, a greater decrement was observed in the USG-guided group. Neither group showed a significant difference in heel pad thickness after 3 and 6 weeks.
Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided injection provided better pain relief and a greater reduction in plantar fascia thickness than palpation-guided injection.