A 17-year-old boy presented with a totally dislocated talus and open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. After thorough debridement and irrigation, the talus and bimalleolar fracture were reduced and fixed. At 21 months after surgery, he could walk using regular shoes without any aid but with moderate pain in the sinus tarsi during activities. No evidence of osteonecrosis or infection was seen in the last radiograph, except for a small degree of narrowing in the talonavicular joint. Reimplantation and fixation of pantalar dislocation seems to have an acceptable outcome.
Limb salvage for Charcot's neuroarthropathy has been shown to have high complication and failure rates. The aim of our report of two cases it to present a unique complication encountered with staged limb salvage for Charcot's neuroarthropathy. In two cases, patients developed delayed tibial shaft fracture associated with previous wire placement despite insertion of locked intramedullary nail fixation that spanned the delayed fracture. Both patients experienced fractures following advancement of weight after definitive fixation. In both patients, there was noted complication with the sites of the pins and revision of external fixation before fracture. In each case, the fracture was within the construct of the intramedullary fixation and successfully treated with an extended course of nonweightbearing. Complications of external fixation and intramedullary fixation are well reported within the literature; however, tibia fracture is rare. Based on these cases, it would seem prudent to recognize the risk of delayed pin-site complications and ensure adequate length of intramedullary fixation to span the potential areas of stress.
The practice of the clinical podiatrist traditionally focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the foot, ankle, and related structures of the leg. Clinical podiatrists are expected to be mindful of “the principles and applications of scientific enquiry.” This includes the evaluation of treatment efficacy and the research process. In contrast, the forensic podiatrist specializes in the analysis of foot-, ankle-, and gait-related evidence in the context of the criminal justice system. Although forensic podiatry is a separate, specialized field, many aspects of this discipline can be useful in the clinical treatment and management of foot and ankle problems. The authors, who are forensic podiatrists, contend that the clinical podiatrist can gain significant insights from the field of forensic podiatry. This article aims to provide clinical podiatrists with an overview of the principles and methods that have been tested and applied by forensic podiatrists in their practice, and suggests that the clinical practice of the nonforensic foot practitioner may benefit from such knowledge.
Hurricane Harvey Aftermath
An Interdisciplinary Case Report on the Management of an Open Bimalleolar Fracture
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes and severe flooding, pose a threat of increased skin and soft-tissue infections, especially in the event of open fractures and wading through the waters. The purpose of this case study is to present a complex patient sustaining trauma resulting in an open bimalleolar fracture, multiple wounds, and exposure to a variety of water-borne pathogens during Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Texas, in 2017. He underwent multiple incision and drainage procedures, tissue cultures, and placement of antibiotic beads, with an application of external fixation to the left ankle. Several unique multidrug-resistant water-borne pathogens were identified, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida, and Serratia marcescens. Once the soft-tissue envelope was restored and infection cleared, a full-thickness rotational flap with tissue expansion was performed. Ultimate reconstruction was delayed several weeks and final left ankle open reduction and internal fixation was performed following antimicrobial treatment with split-thickness skin autograft and wound vacuum-assisted closure application. The patient was discharged after 28 days with no further complications. In instances such as these, all caretakers coming into contact with the patient should be aware of the potential risks of the possible infectious diseases and management to optimize the recovery following hydrologic disasters.
Reconstruction of large bone defects of the metatarsals, whether resulting from trauma, infection, or a neoplastic process, can be especially challenging when attempting to maintain an anatomical parabola and basic biomechanical stability of the forefoot. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with no significant medical history who presented to the emergency department following a severe lawnmower injury to the left forefoot resulting in a large degloving type injury along the medial aspect of the left first ray extending to the level of the medial malleolus. The patient underwent emergent debridement with application of antibiotic bone cement, external fixation, and a negative-pressure dressing. He was subsequently treated with split-thickness skin graft and iliac crest tricortical autograft using a locking plate construct for reconstruction of the distal first ray. Although the patient failed to advance to radiographic osseous union, clinically there was no motion at the attempted fusion site and no pain with ambulation, suggestive of a pseudoarthrosis. The patient has since progressed to full nonpainful weightbearing in regular shoes and has returned to normal activities of daily living. The patient returned to his preinjury level of work and has had complete resolution of all wounds including his split-thickness skin graft donor site. This case shows the potential efficacy of the Masquelet technique for spanning significant traumatic bone defects of the metatarsals involving complete loss of the metatarsophalangeal joint.
A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with fever and inflammation of the right ankle. We initiated antibiotics on suspicion of cellulitis. After no clinical improvement, we performed magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a fluid collection in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon sheath. Synovial fluid analysis revealed monosodium uric crystals. Final diagnosis was FHL tendonitis secondary to gout proven by synovial fluid analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FHL tendonitis caused by gout. When ankle inflammation is examined in clinical situations, FHL tendonitis caused by gout should be considered.
Ganglion cysts have been recorded in many areas throughout the body. Intratendinous ganglion cysts in the foot are very rare. We present the case of 51-year-old woman with a recurrent right foot ganglion cyst. Surgical excision revealed a ganglion cyst in the tendon sheath of the extensor digitorum longus. It is important to be aware of potential tendon involvement for ganglion cysts, as surgeons must be prepared to perform tendon repairs in addition to mass excisions if the tendon is compromised.
Nail pathologies have a broad range of origin and may sometimes be complicated in presentation or clinical course, specifically when the pathology remains recalcitrant after treatment. In this case report we discuss a pathologic disorder that was initially misdiagnosed as a pyogenic granuloma surrounding an ingrown nail but was later found to be a benign neoplastic bone growth, Dupuytren exostosis, also known as a subungual exostosis. Operative treatment was deemed appropriate for the patient, and the exostosis was resected, leaving a soft-tissue void at the distal toe. The remaining void was filled with a perinatal graft, the use of which has been deemed effective anecdotally in both chronic and acute lower-extremity wounds but has not been widely discussed in the lower-extremity literature. This graft was placed to aid in wound healing over a potentially difficult wound bed. As amniotic, chorionic, and umbilical grafts become more prevalent in lower-extremity surgery, its antitumor effects should be further explored and published. This is the first case report, to our knowledge, of the successful use of a perinatal graft in the setting of a bone tumor, and it demonstrates that certain benign neoplasms can be treated with resection and placement of a perinatal graft while helping to prevent chronic wounds at surgical sites.
Pernio is an inflammatory condition of the skin associated with cold exposure. The dermatologic manifestations may vary, and this entity is frequently misdiagnosed. Its association with systemic disease underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis. The authors describe a case report in which a patient who, after initially presenting with a complaint of pain and an ingrown toenail, was eventually diagnosed with pernio as well.
Malignant transformation of wounds is a rare complication that if missed can lead to loss of life or limb. This case report presents a rare invasive variant of squamous cell carcinoma presenting in the setting of a chronic wound complicated by osteomyelitis. This aggressive form of squamous cell carcinoma has a high growth rate and a high propensity for metastasis and recurrence. Early intervention greatly decreases the risk of metastasis and recurrence. We present the systematic evaluation and surgical management of an aggressive primary tumor occurring in the forefoot.