There are few reported cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma metastasis to bone in the lower extremities. The authors present a case of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma thought to be in remission, with metastasis to the first metatarsal head with involvement in the synovial tissue of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Following excision of the lesion, no further treatment was determined to be necessary. The patient was to be observed for local recurrence.
We present a case of a 59-year-old male veteran with a chronic history of right foot soft-tissue mass that was causing pain in his shoes, but not functional or neurologic symptoms. Excision of the mass and pathologic evaluation resulted in multidisciplinary involvement and evaluation. In this example, the mass was found to be either an unusual schwannoma that happens to be psammoma body–rich or an unusual psammomatous melanocytic schwannoma that deviates from conventional examples, as a diagnostic consensus was unable to be reached. Schwannomas are an uncommon finding in the foot, and even more uncommon are those that contain psammoma bodies. Although rare, these tumors can be concerning for more systemic, life-altering diseases such as Carney complex, for which our patient refused genetic testing.
Woringer-Kolopp disease is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides, a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Described is a case of a small annular plaque on the foot diagnosed histologically as Woringer-Kolopp disease and treated successfully with topical and intralesional steroids. In addition, a brief review of the literature and treatment options is provided.
Midline metatarsal ray deficiencies, which occur in approximately half of congenital short limbs with fibular deficiency, provide the most distal and compelling manifestation of a fluid spectrum of human lower-extremity congenital long bone reductions; this spectrum syndromically affects the long bone triad of the proximal femur, fibula, and midline metatarsals. The bony deficiencies correspond to sites of rapid embryonic arterial transitioning. Long bones first begin to ossify because of vascular invasions of their respective mesenchymal/cartilage anlagen, proceeding in a proximal-to-distal sequence along the forming embryonic limb. A single-axis artery forms initially in the embryonic lower limb by means of vasculogenesis. Additional arteries evolve in overlapping transitional waves, in proximity to the various anlagen, during the sixth and seventh weeks after fertilization. An adult pattern of vessels presents by the eighth week. Arterial alterations, in the form of retained primitive embryonic vessels and/or reduced absent adult vessels, have been observed clinically at the aforementioned locations where skeletal reductions occur. Persistence of primitive vessels in association with the triad of long bone reductions allows a heuristic estimation of the time, place, and nature of such coupled vascular and bony dysgeneses. Arterial dysgenesis is postulated to have occurred when the developing arterial and skeletal structures were concurrently vulnerable to teratogenic insults because of embryonic arterial instability, a risk factor during arterial transition. It is herein hypothesized that flawed arterial transitions subject the prefigured long bone cartilage models of the rapidly growing limb to the risk of teratogenesis at one or more of the then most rapidly growing sites. Midline metatarsal deficiency forms the keystone of this developmental concept of an error of limb development, which occurs as a consequence of failed completion of the medial portion of the plantar arch. Therefore, the historical nomenclature of congenital long bone deficiencies will benefit from modification from a current reliance on empirical physical taxonomies to a developmental foundation.
Glomus tumors are relatively rare benign tumors originated from normal glomus bodies. These tumors make up approximately 2% of all hand tumors and are most commonly found in the nail matrix and proximal nail bed of the hands. Histopathologically, they are classified into solid glomus tumor, glomangioma, and the least common type glomangiomyoma. Here we report an unusual case of subungual glomangiomyoma of the toe with dermatoscopic and histopathologic findings.
Osteoid osteomas account for approximately 3% to 10% of primary bone tumors and are found most commonly in the cortical, diaphyseal regions of long tubular bones. These osteoblastic, benign tumors are usually seen in males, in the second to third decade, most often in the long bones of the lower extremity. The literature describes the limited encounters with osteoid osteomas of the pedal digital phalanx, especially in the pediatric population. Here, a case report details a juvenile patient with an osteoid osteoma tumor of the distal phalanx in the right second digit that was treated with complete distal phalanx excision in toto, eliminating the patient's pain and symptoms quickly after surgery. Further the literature is reviewed for other examples of this pathology in the similar clinical setting.
Soft-tissue chondroma is a rare, benign tumor. It is predominantly found in the hands and feet, but rarely in the toes. In this article, we report a digital soft-tissue chondroma that presented as a painful nodule of 5 years' duration in a 67-year-old man. Physical examination revealed a round, solid, movable nodule measuring 7 mm in diameter. Radiographs showed faint linear calcifications in the nodule under the right hallux proximal phalanx neck. The mass was completely excised, and pathologic observation revealed a mass composed of mature chondrocytes in a cartilaginous matrix, consistent with a chondroma. Even though this is a benign tumor, it needs to be differentiated from other tumors, including schwannoma, leiomyoma, chondrosarcoma, and others. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment.
The spring ligament fibrocartilage complex (SLFC) is an important static foot stabilizer comprising the superomedial ligament (SML) and the inferior ligament, with anatomical variations (third ligament). The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of the lesions found during SLFC surgery, to allow direct comparison between the results with various surgical techniques.
Fourteen consecutive patients with SLFC lesions were analyzed during surgical treatment. The mean patient age was 37.3 years, and the mean time from injury was 6.9 months. Intraoperative assessments and anatomical descriptions of the lesions were collected.
Three types of lesion were found. In 13 of 14 cases, only the superomedial ligament was involved: five superomedial ligament distentions and eight superomedial ligament ruptures. In one case, total SLFC (superomedial and inferior ligaments) rupture was observed.
The first classification of SLFC lesions is presented, which is simple, consistent, and based on anatomical description.
Verrucae (warts) are the most common viral infections of the skin, affecting 7% to 10% of the general population. Typically caused by human papillomavirus type 1, plantar warts manifest as benign proliferation of the epithelial cells on the feet. It has been cited that up to one-third of nongenital warts become recalcitrant, and biopsy is often required to confirm diagnosis and direct appropriate treatment. These treatments can vary from various types of oral medications, acids, ablative modalities, and injections. In this article, we present a case of a recalcitrant plantar wart that appeared to circumferentially spread from the initial site after first-line treatment and presumed resolution with the product cantharidin. The development of ring warts is a known complication associated with cantharidin use, with little described rationale to the presentation.
Extraskeletal chondroma is a benign tumor that is found most often in the fingers but can be found in the feet as well. A symptom of this lesion is pressure from the slow-growing mass. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with an extraskeletal chondroma in the plantar aspect of the left first metatarsophalangeal joint with concomitant symptomatic arthrosis at the joint. Operative treatment was excision of the lesion in addition to arthrodesis of the joint attributable to the presence of symptomatic arthrosis. The patient was seen approximately 1 year postoperatively and had no postoperative complications. Distinction between extraskeletal chondromas and other lesions, such as extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, is critical because delayed treatment of the latter has the propensity to lead to detriment to the patient. Therefore, proper diagnosis is critical.