Background: Flat feet change lower extremity alignment, and it may change the load distribution on Achilles tendon during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate effect of cumulative transverse strain via resistive ankle plantarflexion exercise on the Achilles tendon in individuals with flat feet.
Methods: Fourteen individuals with flat feet and 14 age-matched individuals with normal foot posture were enrolled in the present study. Achilles tendon thickness was measured by an ultrasonography device with a linear probe at 3 points: 1 cm (AT-1), 2 cm (AT-2), and 3 cm (AT-3) proximal to the superior aspect of the calcaneus. Ultrasonography measurements were performed before and after participants completed 90 repetitions of double-leg calf raise exercises which included moving the foot from full ankle dorsiflexion to full ankle plantarflexion.
Results: Achilles tendon thickness at all points measured was thinner in the flat feet group at both pre- and post-exercise conditions compared with that of the control group (p<0.05). Achilles tendon thickness at AT-1, AT-2, and AT-3 decreased after the exercise in both groups (p<0.001). The differences in Achilles tendon thickness at all points measured between pre- and post-exercise conditions were lower in individuals with flat feet than those of the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in Achilles tendon thickness after exercise in both groups; however, the tendon thickness markedly diminished in individuals with normal foot posture. The results are thought to result from changes in tendon structure and in load distribution on the Achilles tendon.
Background: To present prospective short-term results of a limited patient series treated with two innovative partial ankle arthroplasties: talar dome resurfacing for mild-to-moderate ankle osteoarthritis (OA) and talar shoulder hemiarthroplasty for chronic medial osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT).
Methods: Eleven subjects underwent talus resurfacing, and six subjects were enrolled for talar hemiarthroplasty. The outcome was followed by patient-reported measures and by pursuing serious adverse events or implant failures over a 2-year period. Progression of ankle osteoarthritis, peri-implant bone changes, and implant migration were followed radiographically.
Results: Active dorsiflexion increased from 3° to 10° in resurfacing and from 15° to 22° in hemiarthroplasty. Patient-reported ankle function, quality of life, and activity level tended to improve only slightly after resurfacing (FAOS cumulative = 41 to 42; FAAM-ADL = 43 to 46; EQ-5D 3L = 0.38 to 0.39, Tegner activity scale = 1.6 to 2.0), but moderately after hemiarthroplasty (FAOS cumulative = 58 to 68, FAAM-ADL = 37 to 71, EQ-5D 3L = 0.53 to 0.72, Tegner activity scale = 3.1 to 3.1). No implant-related radiographic changes, implant failures, or implant-related revision surgeries were recorded.
Conclusions: Based on a small and heterogeneous prospective case series, both partial ankle implants investigated were safe and stable over a 2-year follow-up period, without any radiographic OA progression of the remaining joint. However, patient-reported ankle function, quality of life, and activity level showed a tendency of only minor improvement after resurfacing but a moderate increase after hemiarthroplasty.
Background: Approximately 3,900 Americans die every month of opioid overdose. The total economic burden of the opioid epidemic is estimated to be more than $78 billion annually. We sought to determine whether postoperative opioid-prescribing practice variation exists in foot and ankle surgery.
Methods: We administered a voluntary, anonymous, online questionnaire consisting of six foot and ankle surgery scenarios followed by a demographics section. The purpose of the demographics section was to gather characteristics of podiatric foot and ankle surgeons. We invited podiatric foot and ankle surgeons practicing in the United States to complete the questionnaire via e-mail from the American Podiatric Medical Association’s membership list. For each scenario, respondents selected the postoperative opioid(s) that they would prescribe at the time of surgery, as well as the dose, frequency, and number of “pills” (dosage units). We developed multiple linear regression models to identify associations between prescriber characteristics and two measures of opioid quantity: dosage units and morphine milligram equivalents.
Results: Eight hundred sixty podiatric foot and ankle surgeons completed the survey. The median number of dosage units never exceeded 30 regardless of the foot and ankle surgery. Years in practice correlated with reduction in dosage units at the time of surgery. Compared with the orthopedic community, podiatric foot and ankle surgeons prescribe approximately 25% less dosage units than orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons.
Conclusions: Postoperative opioid-prescribing practice variation exists in foot and ankle surgery. Further research is warranted to determine whether additional education is needed for young surgeons.
All clinicians are ethically obliged to prescribe responsibly and cautiously to diminish the potential for opioid diversion and to help minimize the growth of the current opioid abuse epidemic. Podiatric physicians should establish procedures to better control and limit opioid prescription and develop analgesic regimens to treat pain. The main purpose and goal of this review is to present data congruent with clinical, medical, and legal reports for allowing an appreciation of the possibility of the risk assumed when ordering and prescribing opioids within the podiatric medical profession. First, the concept and process of risk management, illustrated using a root cause analysis approach, is introduced, and application of these principles specifically to opioid prescribing is presented. Then, several examples found in both the medical and legal literature documenting the reasons for opioid prescription risk are presented. Finally, mitigating strategies for safe opioid prescribing are offered so that mitigation of opioid harm can be possible and realized by the lower-extremity specialist. Risk management strategies and tools to mitigate opioid harm, lessen opioid adverse effects, and reduce opioid deaths are presented narratively and graphically.
Background: It was aimed to investigate the intra-observer and inter-observer validity of the Hepple classification used in talus osteochondral lesions.
Methods: This study included 32 patients with osteochondral lesions in the talus after exclusion criteria. A PowerPoint presentation was prepared from the MRI views of the patients. Six observers, divided into two groups according to their experience, were asked to categorize the cases according to Hepple classification. The slides were shuffled and the observers were asked to reevaluate after 6 weeks. Fleiss kappa (κ) coefficient was used for the inter-observer validity and Cohen’s kappa (κ) coefficient for the intra-observer validity.
Results: In the overall inter-observer reliability was at a moderate level of agreement (set one κ=0.511, set two κ=0.406). In the intra-observer evaluation, one observer from the experienced group showed almost perfect agreement (κ=0.809), one observer from the less experienced group had moderate agreement (κ=0.556), and all other observers had substantial agreement (κ=0.556 – 0.730). When all observers were examined, it was seen that there was a substantial agreement in the mean intra-observer evaluation (κ=0.661).
Conclusions: While the intra-observer results showed substantial agreement, the inter-observer results showed moderate agreement. Although the Hepple classification system is frequently used, the need for a more reliable classification system for osteochondral lesions of the talus remains.
Background: In this study, our purpose is to evaluate patients who were followed by acute developing single-sided foot drop and improving with conservative management or spontaneously.
Methods: Between 2019 and 2020, 10 patients were evaluated for a unilateral weakness of the lower extremity in the form of absent dorsiflexion at the ankle joint and were given a diagnosis of foot drop without any etiological cause. Patients were followed for a period of 18 months. All patients were evaluated for acute foot drop of the affected extremity by utilizing the following diagnostic modalities, EMG, MRI lumbar spine, MRI knee, peripheral MRI neurography and non-contrast brain MRI. Each patient was evaluated for a history of Covid-19 infection over the past year. Patients with any identified cause were excluded.
Results: Initial evaluation of muscle strength in all patients revealed 0/5 by the MRC muscle testing grading scale. (1) In 2 patients, the muscle strength was 3/5 at the 6th month, and in the other 8 patients 4/5 at the 6th month. The muscle strength of all patients improved as 5/5 in 1 year. Six of the patients were dispensed an AFO device and nine patient’s performed physical therapy. Evaluation of EMG results identified significant neuropathy at the level of the common peroneal at the fibular head in all patients. In comparison with peroneal nerve stimulation below and above the fibular head in the lateral popliteal fossa; 50% reduction in sensory amplitude, and motor conduction slowing of >10 m/s was present. Evaluation of knee MRI revealed, no masses, edema, or anatomical variations at the level of the fibular head.
Conclusions: In patients diagnosed with unilateral acute foot drop without an etiological cause, one should keep in mind that spontaneous resolution of this condition can occur within one year period.
Background: Distal fibula fractures at the ankle level are common and are usually accompanied by ligament injuries. This study aims to evaluate the effects of ankle ligament ruptures on ankle joints, fracture instability, and plate stress after distal fibula fracture fixed with plate created by finite element analysis (FEA) modeling and loading applied to ligament rupture models that may accompany this fracture.
Methods: A finite element model consisting of 3-D (3D) fibula, tibia, foot bones, and ankle ligaments was designed to investigate the effects of ligament injuries accompanying plate-detected Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO 44B2.1)-type fractures on fracture detection, fixation material, and ankle joints. Then, the results were evaluated by modeling ligament rupture in 6 different ways.
Results: In the modeling where the deltoid and the talofibular ligament are broken together, instability is the highest in the ankle (2.31 mm) and fracture line (0.15 mm). In our study, the rupture of the tibiofibular anterior and posterior ligaments associated with syndesmosis caused less instability in the fracture and ankle than the single rupture models of both the deltoid and the talofibular ligament.
Conclusions: In the finite element modeling of AO 44B2.1-type fractures detected with plate, the importance and potential effects of often overlooked ankle ligaments are pointed out shown. It is important to keep in mind that when treating ankle injuries, the ankle should be treated as a whole, with both bone and soft tissue. In some cases, the fracture may represent the visible tip of the iceberg.