Background: Although there are studies showing that extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (IASTM) methods are effective in chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) treatment, there is a need for studies comparing these techniques. Our goal is to compare the effectiveness of ESWT vs IASTM using Graston Technique® (GT®) instruments in addition to stretching exercises (SEs) in CPHP.
Methods: Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups as ESWT+SEs (Gr I), GT®+SEs (Gr II) and SEs (CG) (ratio 1:1:1). SEs program twice/day, for 8-week was standard for all. Gr I received low intensity ESWT while in Gr II, GT® was the selected method. Visual analog scale (VAS) (for initial step and activity pain); foot function index (FFI); short form-12 (SF-12), and Tampa Scale were used at pretreatment, posttreatment and follow-ups (8-week and 6-month).
Results: VAS and FFI scores improved in the posttreatment and follow-ups in all (p<.00) While effect sizes in Gr I and Gr II were greater than CG in initial step pain at posttreatment and 8-week-follow-up, Gr II had highest effect size at 6-month-follow-up. The mean SF-12 scores in Gr I and Gr II showed improvement on the posttreatment assessment. Furthermore, Gr II showed significant improvements in FFI scores compared to other groups in 6-month-follow-up (F=6.33, p=.003).
Conclusions: Even though ESWT+SEs and GT®+SEs interventions seem to have similar effects on initial step pain at posttreatment and 8-week-follow-up; GT®+SEs was found most effective for improving functional status at 6-month in the management of CPHP.
Background: The emergence of minimally invasive techniques in foot and ankle surgery has aimed to reduce iatrogenic tissue insult by utilising the smallest possible incision area to achieve maximum correction of pathological structures. The objective of this study was to assess whether adequate hallux valgus correction can be achieved via the minimally invasive chevron akin (MICA) procedure.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for a single-surgeon case series of 169 MICA procedures between June 2018 and June 2021 in Australia. Radiographic parameters were evaluated independently by two researchers using 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (1-2 IMA) and hallux valgus angle (HVA) as key measures of procedural outcome.
Results: 95% of participant-operations resulted in normal 1-2 IMA and HVA being obtained post-operatively in a cohort that largely consisted of moderate hallux valgus deformities; 1-2 IMA Reduction: 6.38° ± 3.24 (95% CI 5.89 to 6.87) and HVA Reduction: 20.17° ± 7.69 (95% CI 19.01 to 21.33).
Conclusion: The results of this study help to further strengthen support for the use of minimally invasive bunion surgery as a primary treatment approach in mild to moderate hallux valgus.
Background: Studies on the sensory perception of mass mostly focus on the hands rather than the feet. The aim of our study is to measure how accurately runners can perceive additional shoe mass in comparison to a control shoe (CS) while running, and moreover, whether there is a learning effect in the perception of mass. Indoor running shoes were categorized as a CS (283g) and shoes with four additional masses shoe 2 (+50g), shoe 3 (+150), shoe 4 (+250) and shoe 5 (+315).
Methods: Twenty-two participants attended a to the experiment divided into two sessions. In session one, participants ran on a treadmill for two minutes with the CS and then put on one set of weighted shoes and ran for another two minutes at a preferred velocity. A binary question was used after the pair test. This process was repeated for all the shoes to compare them with the CS.
Results: Based on our statistical analysis (mixed effect logistic regression), the independent variable, mass did have a significant effect on perceived mass, F (4,193) = 10.66, P < 0.0001, while repeating the task did not show a significant learning effect (F (1, 193) = 1.06, P = 0.30).
Conclusions: An increase of +150g is the just noticeable difference among other weighted shoes and Weber’s fraction is equal to 0.53 (150g : 283g). Learning effect did not improve by repeating the task in two sessions in the same day. This study facilitates our understanding about sense of force and enhances multibody simulation in running.
Background: Many surgical techniques have been reported for the treatment of ingrown toenails. Occurrences of infection after matricectomy procedures could cause clinicians to prefer using external braces to treat ingrown toenails. This study compares patients with ingrown toenails who underwent the nail fixation technique and the Winograd technique.
Methods: Patients who underwent ingrown toenail surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The patients’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index [BMI] morphology according to Heifetz classification, surgical technique, visual analog scale (VAS) values, time to return to daily activities (days), complications, and satisfaction levels were all recorded.
Results: Seventy patients were included in the study. Of the patients, 33 underwent nail fixation and 37 underwent the Winograd technique. No significant statistical differences were found in terms of patients’ age, gender, BMI, preoperative clinical features, long-term satisfaction, and ingrown toenail recurrence rates between the two groups, but time to return to daily activities and VAS values were statistically significantly lower in patients treated using nail fixation compared with the Winograd technique.
Conclusion: Nail fixation can be an effective surgical treatment option for an ingrown toenail.
Background: Although tarsal coalition represents the most common cause of peroneal spastic flatfoot, its existence cannot be verified in several cases. In some patients with rigid flatfoot, no cause can be detected after clinical, laboratory, and radiologic examination, and the condition is called idiopathic peroneal spastic flatfoot (IPSF). This study aimed to present our experience with surgical management and outcomes in patients with IPSF.
Methods: Seven patients with an IPSF, who were operated on between 2016 and 2019, and followed for at least 12 months were included, whereas those with known etiologies, such as tarsal coalition or other etiologies (traumatic, etc.) were excluded. All patients were followed up for 3 months with botulinum toxin injection and cast immobilization as a routine protocol, and clinical improvement was not achieved. The Evans procedure and grafting with tricortical iliac crest bone graft in 5 patients and subtalar arthrodesis in 2 patients were performed. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale scores (AOFAS) and Foot & Ankle Disability Index (FADI) scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively from all patients.
Results: In physical examination, all feet manifested by rigid pes planus with varying degrees of hindfoot valgus and limited subtalar motion. Overall, the mean AOFAS and FADI scores significantly increased from 42 (range = 20-76) and 45 (range, 19-68) preoperatively (p = 0.018) to 85 (range = 67-97) and 84 (range, 67-99) (p = 0.043) at the final follow-up, respectively. No major intra- or post-operative complications were observed in any of the patients. All CT and MRI scans revealed no evidence of tarsal coalitions in any of the feet. All radiological workups failed to demonstrate secondary signs of fibrous or cartilaginous coalitions.
Conclusion: Operative treatment seems to be a good option in the treatment of patients with IPSF who do not benefit from conservative treatment. In the future, it is recommended to investigate the ideal treatment options for this group of patients.
Background: Digital deformities represent a common presenting pathology and target for surgical intervention in podiatric medicine and surgery. The objective of this investigation was to compare the radiographic width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges.
Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive feet with a diagnosis of digital deformity and performance of weight-bearing radiographs were analyzed. The maximum width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges were recorded from the radiographs utilizing computerized digital software.
Results: The mean±standard deviation (range) of the head of the second digit proximal phalanx was 9.74±0.87 mm (7.94-11.78), of the head of the third digit proximal phalanx was 9.00±0.91 mm (7.27-10.94), of the head of the fourth digit proximal phalanx was 8.49±1.01 mm (5.57-10.73), and of the head of the fifth digit proximal phalanx was 8.67±0.89 mm (6.50-11.75). The width of the head of the proximal phalanx decreased from the second digit to the third digit (p<0.001), decreased from the third digit to the fourth digit (p<0.001), and then increased from the fourth digit to the fifth digit (p=0.032).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation provide evidence in support of an anatomic and structural contribution to digital deformities. The width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges decreased from the second to the third to the fourth toes, and then subsequently increased with the fifth proximal phalangeal head.
Background: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate adverse short-term outcomes following partial forefoot amputation with a specific comparison performed based on subject height.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed to select those subjects with a 28805 CPT code (amputation, foot; transmetatarsal) that underwent the procedure with “all layers of incision (deep and superficial) fully closed.” This resulted in 11 subjects with a height ≤60 inches, 202 subjects with a height >60 inches and <72 inches, and 55 subjects ≥72 inches.
Results: Results of the primary outcome measures found no significant differences between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (0.0% vs. 6.4% vs. 5.5%; p=0.669), deep incisional infection (9.1% vs. 3.5% vs. 10.9%; p=0.076), or wound disruption (0.0% vs. 5.4% vs. 5.5%; p=0.730). Additionally, no significant differences were observed between groups with respect to unplanned reoperations (9.1% vs. 16.8% vs. 12.7%; p=0.0630) or unplanned hospital readmissions (45.5% vs. 23.3% vs. 20.0%; p=0.190).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation demonstrate no difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of partial forefoot amputation with primary closure based on subject height. Although height has previously been described as a potential risk factor in the development of lower extremity pathogenesis, this finding was not observed in this study from a large US database.
Background: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate adverse short-term outcomes following open lower extremity bypass surgery in subjects with diabetes mellitus with a specific comparison performed based on subject height.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed to select those subjects with CPT codes 35533, 35540, 35556, 35558, 35565, 35566, 35570 and 35571 and with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. This resulted in 83 subjects ≤60 inches, 1084 subjects >60 inches and <72 inches, and 211 subjects ≥72 inches.
Results: No differences were observed between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (9.6% vs. vs. 6.4% vs. 5.7%; p=0.458), deep incisional infection (1.2% vs. 1.4% vs. 2.8%; p=0.289), sepsis (2.4% vs. 2.0% vs. 2.8%; p=0.751), unplanned reoperation (19.3% vs. 15.6% vs. 21.8%; p=0.071), nor unplanned hospital readmission (19.3% vs. 14.8% vs. 17.1%; p=0.573). A significant difference was observed between groups with respect to the development of a wound disruption (4.8% vs. 1.3% vs. 4.7%; p=0.001). A multivariate regression analysis was performed of the wound disruption outcome with the age, gender, race, ethnicity, height, weight, current smoker and open wound/wound infection variables. Race (p=0.025) and weight (p=0.003) were found to be independently associated with wound disruption, but height was not (p=0.701).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation demonstrate no significant difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of lower extremity bypass surgery based on patient height.
Background: The effectiveness of different energy levels used in extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) have been investigated in previous studies, but controversy remains regarding which energy levels should be used in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of different energy levels used in ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis through comparisons of plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution.
Methods: Between July 2020 and September 2020, a total of 51 patients (71 feet) with plantar fasciitis were randomized into three treatment groups using the sealed envelope method. Group 1 (n = 25) received low energy density (0.09 mJ/mm2 ), Group 2 (n = 25) received medium energy density (0.18 mJ/mm2), and Group 3 (n = 21) received high energy density (0.38 mJ/mm2). All groups received three sessions of ESWT with a frequency of 2,000 shocks/min at one week intervals. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Foot Function Index (FFI), and plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasonography, and plantar pressure distribution.
Results: The posttreatment VAS and FFI scores were determined to be statistically significantly lower than the pretreatment values in all three groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the pre and post treatment values of VAS, FFI scores, plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of percentage changes in all the outcome parameters (p>0.05).
Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that neither low, medium, or high levels of ESWT were superior to one another in terms of pain, foot functions, fascia thickness and pressure distribution in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the radiographic
bone morphology of the ankle and the observed fracture type.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who had visited our emergency department with ankle injuries between June 2012 and July 2018. All patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Patients were categorized in two groups based on the fracture patterns (groups 1 and 2). Group 1 consisted of isolated lateral malleolar fractures, while group 2 comprised bimalleolar fractures. Group 1 was further divided into two groups; namely group A and B based on their classification into Weber type B and C fractures, respectively. Four radiographic parameters were measured postoperatively by standing whole-leg anteroposterior view of the ankle; talocrural angle (TCA), medial malleolar relative length (MMRL), lateral malleolar relative length (LMRL), and the distance between the talar dome and distal fibula.
Results: One hundred and seventeen patients were included in group 1-A, 89 patients in group 1-B, and 168 patients in group 2. The values of TCA and MMRL were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. Lateral malleolar length/medial malleolar length ratio was also significantly different between the two groups. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of LMRL and the distance between the tip of the distal fibula and talar process. LMLR and MMRL values between groups A and B were not significantly different (p=0.402 and p=0.592, respectively). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of TCA and the distance between the tip of the distal fibula and talar process.
Conclusions: The talocrural angle, medial malleolar relative length, and lateral malleolar length/medial malleolar length were significantly higher in patients with bimalleolar fracture than in patients with isolated lateral malleolar fractures.