Background: Fat pad atrophy is the loss of subcutaneous tissue in the plantar foot, inhibiting the cushioning function. Patients experience severe pain upon ambulation from high-pressure forces. Soft tissue augmentation or fat pad restoration is performed to improve the thickness and cushioning ability of the subcutaneous layer. A first-of-its-kind, allograft adipose matrix (AAM), which has been reported to support native fat pad restoration, was evaluated to address fat pad atrophy and the cushioning ability in the plantar foot.
Method: An IRB approved retrospective study review and analysis on 16 patients (21 feet) treated with AAM in the plantar foot was conducted. Adverse events and a patient subjective evaluation of percentage improvement were reported, sometimes supported by imaging.
Results: The average volume of AAM injected was 2.2±0.7cc (1.5-2.6cc range) with a follow-up time of 3-20 months, in patients aged 68.6±8.9 years. Overall minimal adverse events were observed and the percentage improvement, as per patient feedback, was 72.9±23.0% (100% corresponds to fully satisfied). The quality of skin improved with reduced presence of callus and patients resumed their daily activities.
Conclusion: AAM can support endogenous fat pad restoration by supplementing fat thickness and its natural cushioning ability. The early clinical observations in this retrospective study review demonstrated that patients could resume daily activities after treatment.
Background: An abnormal hallux interphalangeal angle may be an important risk factor for the recurrence of ingrown toenails.
Methods: In this study, sixty pediatric patients who underwent surgery for an ingrown toenail were evaluated retrospectively in terms of recurrence. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 30 patients (22 male, 8 female) with hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity. Group 2 included 30 patients (20 male, 10 female) without toe deformity.
Results: The mean age was 12.8±1.42 years and 12.5±1.45 years for patients in Group 1 and in Group 2 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient and control group in terms of age and gender (p>0.05). The mean follow-up time was 40 months. We observed recurrence in six patients (20%) in Group 1 and in 2 patients (6.6%) in Group 2.
Conclusion: We concluded that the recurrence of an ingrown toenail may be associated with increased hallux interphalangeal angle in pediatric patients. Factors related to the hallux interphalangeal angle abnormality, which increases the risk of ingrown toenails, also increase the recurrence rate in these patients. Therefore, it is surmised that hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity should be evaluated before surgery, and patients and their families should be informed about the risk of increased recurrence.
Charcot Foot is often misdiagnosed because of its varied presentation that mimics other common disorders including tubercular rheumatism, complex regional pain syndrome or gout. We present a case of ankle swelling and discuss the differential diagnosis, radiological findings, and management. We also discuss the approach to diagnosis and provide differences in clinical presentations, magnetic resonance imaging,and bone scan findings for various differentials considered for Charcot foot.
Background: A few studies have investigated the relationship between foot posture measures and plantar pressure parameters, but no study has investigated the correlation of foot posture measures with all primary parameters consisting of contact area (CA), maximum force (MF), and peak pressure (PP). We aimed to determine the relationship of the Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6) and navicular drop (ND) with plantar pressure parameters during static standing and preferred walking.
Methods: Seventy people were included. Navicular drop and the FPI-6 were used to assess foot posture. Plantar pressure parameters including CA, MF, and PP were recorded by a pressure-sensitive mat during barefoot standing and barefoot walking at preferred speed. All assessments were repeated three times and averaged. Pearson correlation coefficients below 0.300 were accepted as negligible and higher ones were interpreted.
Results: Navicular drop was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot and second metatarsal; also, the FPI-6 was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot (0.500 < r < 0.700). The other interpreted correlations were poor (0.300 < r < 0.500). Both measures were correlated with dynamic CA under the second and third metatarsals; dynamic CA and MF under the midfoot; and static CA, MF, and PP under the first metatarsal and hallux (P < .01). Navicular drop was also correlated with dynamic MF under the first metatarsal and dynamic CA under the fourth metatarsal (P < .01). Furthermore, ND was correlated with static CA and PP under the second metatarsal and static PP under the fifth metatarsal (P < .01). The FPI-6 was also correlated with dynamic MF and PP under the hallux (P < .01).
Conclusions: The correlations between foot posture measures and plantar pressure variables are poor to moderate. The measures may be useful in the clinical assessment of medial forefoot problems related to prolonged standing and midfoot complaints related to high force during walking. Furthermore, the FPI-6 may provide valuable data regarding hallux complaints related to the high loads during walking.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that is very similar to human Staphylococcus pathogens, particularly multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent reports have indicated that S pseudintermedius is easily transmitted between pets (mainly dogs) and owners because of these similarities. Although this pathogen has been associated with diabetic foot infections, it has not yet been described in the podiatric medical literature. In this case report, we present a diabetic foot infection in a 61-year-old man that was refractory to multiple rounds of antibiotic drug therapy. Deep wound cultures eventually grew S pseudintermedius, which was the first known case of this pathogen reported in our hospital system.
Background: To compare pathogens involved in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) and pedal osteomyelitis (OM) in patients with and without diabetes with puncture wounds to the foot.
Methods: We evaluated 113 consecutive patients between June 1, 2011, and March 31, 2019, with foot infection (SSTIs and OM) from a puncture injury sustained to the foot. Eighty-three patients had diabetes and 30 did not. We evaluated the bacterial pathogens in patients with SSTIs and pedal OM.
Results: Polymicrobial infections were more common in patients with diabetes mellitus (83.1% versus 53.3%; P = .001). The most common pathogen for SSTIs and OM in patients with diabetes was Staphylococcus aureus (SSTIs, 50.7%; OM, 32.3%), whereas in patients without diabetes it was Pseudomonas (25%) for SSTIs. Anaerobes (9.4%) and fungal infection (3.1%) were uncommon. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in only 5.8% of people with diabetes.
Conclusions: The most common bacterial pathogen in both SSTIs and pedal OM was S aureus in patients with diabetes. Pseudomonas species was the most common pathogen in people without diabetes with SSTIs.
Background: Lateral ankle sprain is an injury that often occurs during sports or daily life activities. Athletic tape and kinesiology tape applications are among the external support treatment options especially for athletes to support the ankle and protect it from recurrent sprains. We sought to compare the kinematic stabilization effects of different ankle taping applications on the ankle joint during drop landing in individuals with a history of unilateral lateral ankle injury.
Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 30 volunteers with unilateral ankle injury were evaluated. The participants were asked to land on one leg on the involved side and the contralateral side from a 30-cm-high platform. The same practice was repeated after applying kinesiology tape and rigid tape to the injured foot. Kinematic analysis of the foot and ankle was performed by recording three-dimensional spatial position information at a speed of 240 frames per second using infrared cameras.
Results: The highest inversion angles of the involved foot at initial contact and 150 msec after initial contact were higher than those of the uninvolved side (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively). There was no significant difference in ankle kinematic values in the involved foot among kinesiology taping, athletic taping, and no taping applications (P = .74).
Conclusions: People with lateral ankle sprains show reduced inversion during landing. There were no significant differences among kinesiology taping, athletic taping, and no taping on the injured foot in terms of ankle kinematics. Care should be taken when using taping materials as protective measures for sports activities.
Background: We evaluated the cost of treating neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease by using medical and hospital claims records submitted for reimbursement to payers (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid).
Methods: Adjudicated claims and remittance data on claims that include submitted charges, line items paid by insurers directly to providers and patient payments of copays, deductibles and co-insurance were used. Eligible patients from a commercial database containing more than 60% of US patients with health insurance were analyzed. Patient selection, performed using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, yielded a study population of 42,837 unique anonymized patients.
Results: Using the metric of “submitted charges” to overcome differences in levels of reimbursement across insurance payers and Medicare/Medicaid, we identified 34,348 patients with ulcers with an average treatment cost of $94,100 per patient ($41,800 annualized) The costliest ulcer subtype was nonpressure ulcer of the heel/midfoot among 13,184 patients with $121,400 per patient ($53,900 annualized), 29% higher than across all ulcer types. The subset of 22,281 ulcer patients who also had a surgical procedure incurred costs of $121,000 per patient ($53,800 annualized). The costliest surgical codes were complications of vascular prosthetic devices, implants, grafts among 6444 patients with $146,900 per patient ($65,300 annualized). The combination of most expensive ulcer and most expensive surgery yielded a cohort of 2355 patients with the highest average cost of $177,400 per patient ($78,800 annualized).
Conclusions: The resource burden for management of neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease is substantial. Mitigating this burden may help reduce significant resource utilization.
Cubonavicular coalition is a rare type of tarsal coalition that can be described as osseous or nonosseous (fibrous, cartilaginous, or fibrocartilaginous). Typically, it manifests symptoms during adolescence, as it presents with pain at the Mid-hindfoot and with decreased range of motion at the midtarsal joints, hindfoot valgus deformity, or peroneal spasm. Here, we present a rare case of cubonavicular coalition in a middle-aged woman with atypical presentation and a review of the literature. We conclude that this abnormality should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of mid-hindfoot pain, even in middle-aged adults.