Background: The human foot has three arches. The medial longitudinal arch is the longest, the highest, and the most important. The development of a normal foot arch is greatly affected by genetic inheritance, differences in the environment, socioeconomic development, body weight, sex, ethnicity, and culture. The purpose of this study was to compare the arch type between shoe-wearing and barefooted individuals.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The data obtained were checked for clarity and consistency before analysis. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics and chi-square. p-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
Result: From a total of 446 subjects, 217 (48.7%) were males, 131 (29.6%) were urban residents and 226 (50.6 %) were shoe wearers. From the total sample, 46.2%, 42.8%, and 11% are high, normal, and flat-arched individuals, respectively. Of the shoe wearers, 6.7% have a flat arch while 4.3% of the barefooted subjects are flat-arched. Of the total flat-arched subjects, 8.3% are males and 2.7% are females. Of the urban residents, 17.5% have a flat foot and 8.3% of rural residents were flat arched. Among the shoe wearers, 8.8% use closed-toe shoes, and 4.4% that wear sandals are flat-arched.
Conclusion: The result indicates sex, type of shoes, wearing shoes, and being barefooted affected the development of the foot arch.
Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is predominantly treated conservatively through some modalities such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), yet the short effect of these modalities on pain and function is still ambiguous. This study aims to compare the short-term effectiveness of ESWT and LLLT on pain and function in patients with PF.
Methods: Participants (n=47) were randomly assigned into 2 groups as ESWT (n=27) and LLLT (n=20). ESWT (once a week) and LLLT (three times a week) were administered to the participants for 3 weeks. Foot function index (FFI) including pain, disability, and activity limitation subscales was administered at baseline and post-treatment. A reduction of one point in total scores was considered as a minimum clinically important difference. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyze the changes in outcomes and compare the groups.
Results: There were significant main effects of time, and significant interaction effects between
group and time on pain (P<0.001), disability (P<0.001), and activity limitation (P<0.05). The main effect of the group was not significant for all subscales (P=0.811, P=0.481, P=0.865, respectively). The LLLT group showed a significant decline in pain (P<0.001), disability (P<0.001), and activity limitation (P<0.001) while there was no change in the ESWT group over time (P=0.319, P=0.711, P=1.0 respectively). Consistently, 95% of participants in the LLLT had CID in the pain subscale whereas 48% of the ESWT group had.
Conclusions: LLLT was found to be superior to ESWT as an effective approach in the short-term management of PF.
Background: Body awareness is an expression of the extent of sensitivity and attentiveness to internal bodily signals and sensations. The foot has a critical function in providing interoceptive and exteroceptive information. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare body awareness in individuals with and without hallux valgus (HV) deformity, and 2) investigate the relationship between body awareness and HV-related parameters.
Methods: A total of 129 participants completed the assessments. The severity of the HV was evaluated using the Manchester Scale; pain severity was evaluated using the numeric pain rating scale; and the functional status was evaluated using the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the Manchester Scale scores as the presence or absence of HV. The body awareness of the individuals with HV was assessed using the Body Awareness Questionnaire.
Results: Included in this study were 69 participants with HV and 60 healthy participants. There was no difference between groups in terms of demographic properties. Two groups were found different only in pain severity (P < 0.01). The correlation analysis showed that there was a low correlation between the body awareness score and pain severity in both feet (right foot r: 0.306, P = 0.011; left foot r: 0.320, P = 0.007) in individuals with HV.
Conclusions: Participants with HV had higher pain severity and the pain severity was associated with the body awareness. The level of body awareness should be assessed and taken into consideration in the management of pain in patients with HV.
Background: Distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal is a widely used method for the correction of mild-to-moderate hallux valgus deformities. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of headless compression screws, kirschner wires and absorbable pins in terms of stiffness and maximum load in distal oblique metatarsal osteotomy.
Methods: A total of 30 4th generation first metatarsal synthetic bone models were divided into three groups according to the fixation techniques. The stiffness of the first metatarsal was calculated as the slope of the linear curve that fit with the first linear part of the force displacement curve. The failure strength was recorded as the maximum load. The stiffness and maximum load values in the axillary and transverse configurations were compared between the three fixation groups.
Results: The stiffness was statistically higher in Group K and Group C compared to Group B in both axial and transverse loading. Similarly, the maximum load was significantly higher in both Group K and Group C compared to Group B in both loading conditions. No significant difference was found between Group K and Group C in stability. The higher failure strength was obtained with headless compression screws (113.34±35.88 N) in the axial loading. The lowest failure strength was found in the absorbable pins technique (16.17±7.72 N) in the transverse loading.
Conclusion: No significant difference was found between the Kirschner wires and headless compression screws techniques, although the highest strength was obtained with headless compression screws that are increasingly used in orthopedic practice.
Background: Ideal suture technique and type in tendon repair are remain unclear. This biomechanical study aimed to assess the biomechanical characteristics of three techniques, modified Kessler (mKE), modified Krackow (mKR), and modified tension Bunnell (mtBU), in sheep Achilles’ tendon tear repair using three suture types, polypropylene, polyester, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sutures, which are also compared.
Methods: Sixty-three Achilles’ tendons harvested from sheep were transversely hacked as a replacement for rupture in a standardized measure and repaired using mKE, mKR, and mtBU techniques with No. 2 polypropylene, polyester, and UHMWPE sutures. Biomechanical parameters, such as Young’s modulus, ultimate strength, and strength to the 5-mm gap were recorded for statistical analysis.
Results: The mtBU technique with UHMWPE use resulted in increased ultimate strength, strenght to 5-mm gap, Young’s modulus, and quantity of specimens with low clinical failure modes compared to other techniques with other suture materials. Furthermore, mtBU has the lowest thickness at the repair side of the tendons. This approach showed tendon failure during maximal traction testing, whereas the mKE and mKR had polyethylene and polyester suture failures.
Conclusions: The UHMWPE suture was significantly superior to the other sutures in each suture techniques in terms of strength and durability. The mtBU technique using UHMWPE suture showed better biomechanical results, implying that this repair might be more appropriate to obtain early mobilization after tendon ruptures.
Background: Clinical thermography is a relatively novel technique in wide use in different medical fields because of its versatility and ease of application. It inflicts no pain and it entails no contact with the pediatric patient, which assuages anxiety and fear in subjects when undergoing diagnostic exploration. The use of infrared clinical thermography being suggested here is to establish normality patterns, which have not been described in the relevant literature. These patterns may be extrapolated to pathological study by means of future research lines.
Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study (descriptive in nature) has been carried out, with a sample population of 328 children divided into two age groups; 6-7 and 13-16 years old, all of them schooled in the province of Cáceres (Spain). The variables analyzed here are: age, sex, and temperature. A FLIR E60bx® thermographic camera has been used to study foot temperature.
Results: Results show that the temperature varies among the different study areas established for the foot, although they remain constant bilaterally. In addition, the highest temperature is found to be located in the area of the first toe (29.8ºC), and the lowest at the heel (28.8ºC).
Conclusions: It can be concluded that both feet have the same thermal behavior, despite the variation in temperature among the different areas that were established in the foot for the purposes of this study.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted all facets of health care in the United States, including the disruption of professional training for podiatry residents and students. In March 2020, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended pausing then modifying all clinical rotations. The podiatric community followed suit. In-person restrictions, cancellations of clerkships, limited clinical experiences, virtual didactic programs and reduced surgical cases for students and residency programs occurred for many months during the ongoing pandemic. These adaptations impacted the ability of podiatric students to complete clinical rotations and clerkships, which are pivotal to their academic curriculum and residency program application and selection.
Methods: A survey was conducted by the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) and sent out by the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine (AACPM). The 2021 post-interview surveys were sent out to all participants in the 2021 CASPR application and match cycle, both programs and candidates.
Results: The COTH presents results and comments from the 2021 virtual interview experience and residency match. Data and anecdotal comments from the 2021 post-interview survey conducted by COTH, sent out by AACPM, are presented here.
Conclusions: Results from the surveys of program directors and candidates show a preference by both groups for in-person interviews despite the personal time demands and increased costs associated with travel.
Background: Although there are studies showing that extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (IASTM) methods are effective in chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) treatment, there is a need for studies comparing these techniques. Our goal is to compare the effectiveness of ESWT vs IASTM using Graston Technique® (GT®) instruments in addition to stretching exercises (SEs) in CPHP.
Methods: Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups as ESWT+SEs (Gr I), GT®+SEs (Gr II) and SEs (CG) (ratio 1:1:1). SEs program twice/day, for 8-week was standard for all. Gr I received low intensity ESWT while in Gr II, GT® was the selected method. Visual analog scale (VAS) (for initial step and activity pain); foot function index (FFI); short form-12 (SF-12), and Tampa Scale were used at pretreatment, posttreatment and follow-ups (8-week and 6-month).
Results: VAS and FFI scores improved in the posttreatment and follow-ups in all (p<.00) While effect sizes in Gr I and Gr II were greater than CG in initial step pain at posttreatment and 8-week-follow-up, Gr II had highest effect size at 6-month-follow-up. The mean SF-12 scores in Gr I and Gr II showed improvement on the posttreatment assessment. Furthermore, Gr II showed significant improvements in FFI scores compared to other groups in 6-month-follow-up (F=6.33, p=.003).
Conclusions: Even though ESWT+SEs and GT®+SEs interventions seem to have similar effects on initial step pain at posttreatment and 8-week-follow-up; GT®+SEs was found most effective for improving functional status at 6-month in the management of CPHP.
A 30-year-old man working as a waiter presented with a progressively enlarging and symptomatic soft-tissue mass on the plantar medial aspect of his left foot. The mass was painful and disrupting ambulation, despite footwear modifications. He ultimately underwent excision of what was a determined to be a fibrolipoma, returning to his regular shoes and all activities. Plantar neoplasms, even when benign, can grow to sizes that can result in significant disability. If left untreated, particularly in individuals engaged in occupations requiring frequent standing or walking, excision of the mass will often require a more aggressive operative approach.
Background: Transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) is a viable option to avoid major amputation and limb loss in patients with forefoot sepsis, infection, or tissue loss. However, TMAs are associated with a significant incidence of dehiscence, readmission, and reoperation rates ranging from 26% to 63%. To encourage tissue healing, neovascularization, and durable closure, a nonwoven, resorbable, synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix whose architecture is similar to native human extracellular matrix was used in an augmented closure technique. We comparatively evaluated clinical outcomes and complication rates in TMA procedures with and without augmented closure.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of ten patients who underwent TMA with augmented closure using the synthetic matrix and ten patients who underwent TMA with standard primary closure was conducted.
Results: After TMA, 80% of the patients who underwent augmented closure demonstrated complete wound healing compared with 60% of the control group. Patients undergoing augmented closure demonstrated five instances of wound dehiscence and 20% limb loss compared with eight instances of wound dehiscence and 40% limb loss in the control group. After TMA and augmented closure, patients required eight interventional procedures before complete healing compared with patients undergoing standard closure, who required 13 interventional procedures before complete healing.
Conclusions: Augmented closure of surgical wounds after TMA using a synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix provided a unique means of reducing time to healing (18%), wound dehiscence (29%), number of procedures performed (39%), and rate of limb loss (20%). Augmented closure, therefore, offers a means of improving quality of life and reducing risk for patients undergoing TMA, and potentially reducing total cost of care.