Background: Sinus tarsi syndrome is characterized by permanent pain on the anterolateral side of the ankle. This pain occurs due to chronic inflammation, characterized by fibrotic tissue remnants and synovitis accumulation after repeated traumatic injuries. Few studies have documented the outcome of injection treatments for sinus tarsi syndrome. We sought to determine the effects of corticosteroid and local anesthetic, platelet-rich plasma, and ozone injection on the sinus tarsi syndrome.
Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with sinus tarsi syndrome were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in the first group received corticosteroid and local anesthetic, patients in the second group received platelet-rich plasma, and patients in the third group were given ozone injections. Outcome measures were Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS), Foot Function Index (FFI), and Foot-Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Outcome measures were evaluated by comparing pre-intervention and post-injection 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups.
Results: At the end of the 1st month, third month, and sixth month after injection, significant improvements were observed in all three groups compared to the baseline (p < .001 for all comparisons). In the 1st and third months, the improvements in AOFAS scores were similar in Groups 1 and 3; those in Group 2 were lower (p = .001 and p = .004, respectively). In the 1st month, the improvements in FAOS scores were similar in Groups 2 and 3; those in Group 1 were higher (p < .001). During the 6-month follow-up period, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS and FFI results between all three groups (p > .05).
Conclusions: Corticosteroid and local anesthetic or platelet-rich plasma or ozone injections could provide clinically significant functional improvement for at least six months in patients with sinus tarsi syndrome.
This case describes delayed treatment of a medial talonavicular dislocation with a shear fracture of the talar head, comminuted posterior talar process fracture, and an intra-articular cuboid fracture with subtle medial displacement of the calcanealcuboid joint and the associated treatment. The injury was sustained in a 35-year-old male following a high-energy motor vehicle accident. Three weeks following the injury, delayed treatment was achieved following an attempted closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by open reduction and percutaneous kirschner wire fixation. After a 12-month follow-up the patient was able to return to work and regular activities pain free without complications. Several associated injuries have been described with isolated talonavicular dislocations. This case reviews the technique and care surrounding this injury pattern and its delayed treatment.
Background: Using high-heeled shoes in daily life affects the stability of walking, body posture, and functionality. So, the present study was aimed to determine the immediate effect of Kinesio-taping (KT) on functionality, static and dynamic balance, exercise capacity, posture in young women using high-heeled shoes.
Methods: Thirty-seven females who were used high-heeled shoes with a mean age of 20.32±1.37 years were divided into two groups: control (n:20) and study group(n:17). The study group’s both limbs were taped medially, laterally, and dorsally with KT; no application was made to the control group. Balance [Techno Body Postural Line], functionality [vertical jump and functional reach test], exercise capacity [6-min walk test], human body posture [New York Posture Rating Chart] was assessed.
Results: Use of high-heeled shoes was 8(7-9) hours/day, 5(3-5) days/week, 3(2-6.5) years in the study group versus 6(6-8) hours/day, 4(2.5-5.75) days/week for 4(2.5-5.75) years in the control group. Statistical significance in functional reach distance (cm) was found within the control (p:0.010) and study groups (p:0.005) but not between the groups (p>0.05). Stabilometric mono pedal right foot elips area (mm2; p:0.006) and perimeter (mm;p:0.009); left foot elips area (mm2;p:0.016), perimeter (mm;p:0.023) and front/backward standard deviation (p:0.018); dynamic balance area gap percentage (%; p:0.030) were significant within the study group. Posture, vertical jump distance, exercise capacity, stabilometric test results, bipedal closed-eye&opened eye results were similar within and between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Kinesio-taping has no immediate effect on exercise capacity, vertical jump function, posture, and bipedal static balance but can modulate the functional reach function, static mono pedal leg balance, and dynamic equilibrium. Further studies are recommended to investigate the additive effect of KT with high heels and after 45 minutes, 24 hours and 72 hours.
Background: Given that excess opioid prescriptions contribute to the United States opioid epidemic and there are few national opioid prescribing guidelines for the management of acute pain, it is pertinent to determine if prescribers can sufficiently assess their own prescribing practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate podiatric surgeons’ ability to evaluate if their own opioid prescribing practice is less than, near, or above that of an “average” prescriber.
Methods: We administered a scenario-based, voluntary, anonymous, online questionnaire via Qualtrics which consisted of five surgery-based scenarios commonly performed by podiatric surgeons. Respondents were asked the quantity of opioids they would prescribe at the time of surgery. Respondents were also asked to rate their prescribing practice compared to the average (median) podiatric surgeons. We compared self-reported behavior to self-reported perception (“I prescribe less than average,” “I prescribed about average,” and “I prescribe more than average”). ANOVA was used for univariate analysis between the three groups. We used linear regression to adjust for confounders. Data restriction was used to account for restrictive state laws.
Results: One hundred fifteen podiatric surgeons completed the survey from in April 2020. Less than half of the time, respondents accurately identified their own category. Consequently, there were no statistically significant differences between podiatric surgeons who reported that they “prescribe less,” “prescribe about average,” and “prescribe more.” Paradoxically, there was a flip in scenario #5, whereas respondents who reported they “prescribe more” actually prescribed the least and respondents who believed that they “prescribe less” actually prescribed the most.
Conclusions: Cognitive bias, in the form of a novel effect, occurs in postoperative opioid prescribing practice; in the absence of procedure-specific guidelines or an objective standard, podiatric surgeons, more often than not, were unaware of how their own opioid prescribing practice measured up to other podiatric surgeons.
Background: The purpose of this retrospective audit was to compare patient based clinical outcomes to amputation healing outcomes twelve months after a minor foot amputation in people with diabetes.
Methods: Hospital admission and community outpatient data were extracted for all minor foot amputations in people with diabetes in 2017 in the Central Coast Local Health District.
Results: A total 85 minor foot amputations involving 74 people were identified. At the twelve-month follow-up 74% (n=56) of the minor foot amputations healed, 63% (n=41) of the participants achieved a good clinical outcome (healed, no more proximal amputations, or death within the 12 month follow up period), and the mortality rate was 18%. Poor clinical outcomes were associated with those aged greater than 60 (RR 5.75, 95% CI: 0.85 to 38.7, p=0.013), those undergoing a further surgical debridement procedure during their hospital stay (RR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.4, p=0.005) and those who did not attend CCLHD Podiatry clinics post-amputation (RR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.1, p=0.010).
Conclusions: To improve patient based clinical outcomes post-minor foot amputation, targeted follow-up in a high-risk foot clinic, and tailored discharge treatment plans for people aged over 60 or those undergoing a debridement procedure may be considered.
Background: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of ingrown toenail cases in one of the biggest reference centers.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted to Ufuk University Hospital with ingrown toenail between January 1. 2014 and December 31. 2019. Firstly, clinical charactersitcs and demographic features of all cases were evaluated afterwards the study population was divided into two groups: 1) Group1(Patients who were ≤ 20 years old), 2) Group 2 (Patients who were >20 years old) and these groups were compared in terms of their clinical findings.
Results: Duration of diseases, BMI, rate of medications for chronic diseases and rate of joint diseases were significantly higher in group 2. On the other hand, rates of hyperhidrosis and sudden weight gain were significantly higher in group 1(p<0.05). Severity of ingrown toenail was significantly different between the groups (p=0.006). Stage 1 was the most common stage in both groups and rate of stage 3 was higher in group 1. Onycoshisis and was more common in group 1 while nail thickening was more common in group 2 (p<0.05). Medications were also significantly different between the groups as nail wire and Aluminum chloride were the most common treatment modalities in group 2 and 1, respectively (p<0.05). Periungual edema, presence of pus, hypertrophie and granulation were more common in group 1 (p<0.05). Thin nail plate was more common in group 1 while normal and thick nail nail plate were more common in group2 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Clinical characteristics of ingrown toe nail vary between younger and older populations. Thus, individualized approach should be preferred in the management of ingrown toe nail for different age groups.
Background: It’s well known fact that Hallux valgus (HV) alternates foot biomechanics. In different populations HV and postural stability has been studied but HV and adolescent ballet dancer has not been studied. Aim of the our study is to explore affect of HV on adolescent ballet dancers’ balance. Also we wanted to explore health related quality of life of adolescent ballet dancers with HV.
Methods: Ballets aged between 8-16 years old has been screened prospectively. The dancers divided into two groups group 1;Ballets with HV and group 2; Ballets without HV. HV diagnosis was made clinically. Two groups were compared according to balance parameters and health related quality of life (HRQOL) questionaires.
Results: Group 1 was formed with 31 participants and group 2 was formed with 24 participants. All participants in both groups were female. Mean age in group 1 was 11.6 (8-16 years old) and 12.2 (8-16 years old) in group 2. Mean first metatarsophalangeal angle was 13.4° (10°-15°) in group 2 and 19.8° (16°-25°) in HV group respectively. A statistically significant difference was found according to the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test results in the comparison of HVA (Hallux Valgus Angle) between groups. According to Spearman Rho correlation analysis, it was determined that the increase in HVA caused deterioration in the static Flamingo test. (r=0.552 p=0.019). No significant relationship was found between HRQoL questionaries and the presence of HV. (p>0,05)
Conclusions: Adolescent ballet dancers experience static balance impairment due to HV angle increase. Clinical measurement of HV and application of balance parameters made easy without need of set ups to perform evaluation with high numbers of participants in concordance with literature.
Background: It’s important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of school children by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it’s difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results which can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study is to use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to predict main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 school children were included in the current study (average age 10.58 ± 1.27 years, body mass index 18.86 ± 4.33 kg / m2). During the research, a Sensor Medica Freemed pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distribution, load and surface areas, pressure time integrals, weight ratios and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: PCA yielded ten principal component (PC) that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: Static and dynamic plantar pressure distribution, which is affected by many variables, can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Background: One of the common causes of posterior ankle pain is posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS). Many studies about PAIS have been conducted on special groups such as athletes, dancers, and football players, whereas there has been no previous study of a non-athletic population. This study aimed to evaluate the causes and treatment methods of this syndrome in the non-athletic population and compare it with the athletic population.
Methods: A retrospective review was done and 28 of 46 patients (60.9%) recovered from two-staged conservative therapy. 18 of 46 patients (39.1%) who did not benefit from conservative treatment for three months, hindfoot endoscopy was applied. Patient data, including sex, age, occupation, and sports activity level, were recorded. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score, and Tegner score were recorded. Patient satisfaction was assessed with a 4-point Likert scale. All complications were recorded.
Results: The mean follow-up period was 27.4 months. At the final follow-up examination, the AOFAS hindfoot score had significantly improved from 66.4 to 96.8 (p<0.001). The Tegner activity score improved significantly from 4.6 to 8.8 (p<0.001). The VAS score was 6.4 and increased to 0.9 (p<0.001). Using the 4-point Likert Scale for patient satisfaction, 13 (72.2%) stated that the surgical procedure was excellent, and 4 (27.8%) stated it as good. The mean time to return to work was 4.2 weeks. As complications, only sural nerve dysesthesia was seen in 2 patients(11.1%).
Conclusions: This study can be considered of value as the first study to have evaluated PAIS in the non-athletic population. Conservative treatment showed good results as nearly two-thirds of the patients recovered. Hindfoot endoscopy applied to cases not responding to conservative therapy is a successful treatment with low complication rates.
Ganglion cysts are relatively common entities, but intraneural ganglia within peripheral nerves are rare and poorly understood. We present a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with acute left dropfoot. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was misinterpreted as common peroneal neuritis consistent with a traction injury corroborated by the patient’s history. However, after surgical decompression and external neurolysis were performed, the patient’s symptoms worsened. Repeated MRI revealed an intraneural ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve with connection to the superior tibiofibular joint by means of its anterior recurrent branch that was evident retrospectively on preoperative MRI. It is crucial to carefully inspect atypical cases to further recognize and appreciate the dynamic aspect of this disease or “roller-coaster” phenomenon. Intraneural ganglion cysts rely heavily on intraneural and extraneural pressure gradients for propagation, which can be drawn from the expanded work of the unifying articular theory. This report emphasizes the importance of understanding the pathoanatomical and hydraulic factors to appropriately identify and treat intraneural ganglion cysts. Increased recognition of this pathologic entity as a differential diagnosis for acute onset dropfoot is also highlighted.