You are looking at 11 - 20 of 59 items for
- Author or Editor: David G. Armstrong x
- Refine by access: All Content x
The authors undertook a study to evaluate the prevalence of ankle equinus and its potential relationship to high plantar pressure in a large, urban population with diabetes mellitus. The first 1,666 consecutive people with diabetes (50.3% male; mean [±SD] age, 69.1 ± 11.1 years) presenting to a large, urban, managed-care outpatient clinic were enrolled in this longitudinal, 2-year outcomes study. Patients received a standardized medical and musculoskeletal assessment at the time of enrollment, including evaluation at an onsite gait laboratory. Equinus was defined as less than 0° of dorsiflexion at the ankle. The overall prevalence of equinus in this population was 10.3%. Patients with equinus had significantly higher peak plantar pressures than those without the deformity and were at nearly three times greater risk for presenting with elevated plantar pressures. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the two groups. However, patients with equinus had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without equinus. Having a high index of suspicion for this deformity and subsequently addressing it through conservative or surgical means may help to reduce the risk of foot ulceration and amputation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(9): 479-482, 2002)
Chemical matrixectomy for ingrown toenails is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on the foot. The procedure was first described in 1945 by Otto Boll, who discussed the use of phenol to correct ingrown toenails. In the years that followed, many variations of technique and method have been described. This article reviews the pertinent literature detailing chemical matrixectomies and advocates the use of an evidence basis for care. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(5): 287-295, 2002)
Clinicians caring for chronic wounds can easily overlook nutritional status. Patients with diabetes are at high risk for primary and secondary malnutrition. Although profiles exist defining the extent of the deficiency, the process of wound healing and the interactions of the macronutrients and micronutrients necessary to accomplish it must first be understood. In elderly patients with diabetes, additional factors such as liver and renal function, the interdependence of the immune system, and protein synthesis, also must be considered. This article provides a practical format to assist clinicians in better evaluating this often difficult-to-assess area of care. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(1): 38-47, 2002)
Background: Off-loading excessive pressure is essential to healing diabetic foot ulcers. However, many patients are not compliant in using prescribed footwear or off-loading devices. We sought to validate a method of objectively measuring off-loading compliance via activity monitors.
Methods: For 4 days, a single subject maintained a written compliance diary concerning use of a removable cast walker. He also wore a hip-mounted activity monitor during all waking hours. An additional activity monitor remained mounted on the cast walker at all times. At the conclusion of the 4 days, the time-stamped hip activity data were independently coded for walker compliance by the compliance diary and by using the time-stamped walker activity data.
Results: An intraclass reliability of 0.93 was found between diary-coded and walker monitor–coded activity.
Conclusions: These results support the use of this dual activity monitor approach for assessing off-loading compliance. An advantage of this approach versus a patient-maintained diary is that the monitors are not susceptible to incorrect patient recall or a patient’s desire to please a caregiver by reporting inflated compliance. Furthermore, these results seem to lend support to existing reports in the literature using similar methods. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 100–103, 2009)
This study compares the potential benefit of fifth metatarsal head resection versus standard conservative treatment of plantar ulcerations in people with diabetes mellitus. Using a retrospective cohort model, we abstracted data from 40 patients (22 cases and 18 controls) treated for uninfected, nonischemic diabetic foot wounds beneath the fifth metatarsal head. There were no significant differences in sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, or degree of glucose control between cases and controls. Patients who underwent a fifth metatarsal head resection healed significantly faster (mean ± SD, 5.8 ± 2.9 versus 8.7 ± 4.3 weeks). Patients were much less likely to reulcerate during the period of evaluation in the surgical group (4.5% versus 27.8%). The results of this study suggest that fifth metatarsal head resection is a potentially effective treatment in patients at high risk of ulceration and reulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 353–356, 2005)
Wound repair and regeneration is a highly complex combination of matrix destruction and reorganization. Although major hurdles remain, advances during the past generation have improved the clinician’s armamentarium in the medical and surgical management of this problem. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding the pragmatic use of three of the most commonly used advanced therapies: bioengineered tissue, negative-pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with a focus on the near-term future of wound healing, including stem cell therapy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 385–394, 2010)
Background: We evaluated the cost of treating neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease by using medical and hospital claims records submitted for reimbursement to payers (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid).
Methods: Adjudicated claims and remittance data on claims that include submitted charges, line items paid by insurers directly to providers and patient payments of copays, deductibles and co-insurance were used. Eligible patients from a commercial database containing more than 60% of US patients with health insurance were analyzed. Patient selection, performed using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, yielded a study population of 42,837 unique anonymized patients.
Results: Using the metric of “submitted charges” to overcome differences in levels of reimbursement across insurance payers and Medicare/Medicaid, we identified 34,348 patients with ulcers with an average treatment cost of $94,100 per patient ($41,800 annualized) The costliest ulcer subtype was nonpressure ulcer of the heel/midfoot among 13,184 patients with $121,400 per patient ($53,900 annualized), 29% higher than across all ulcer types. The subset of 22,281 ulcer patients who also had a surgical procedure incurred costs of $121,000 per patient ($53,800 annualized). The costliest surgical codes were complications of vascular prosthetic devices, implants, grafts among 6444 patients with $146,900 per patient ($65,300 annualized). The combination of most expensive ulcer and most expensive surgery yielded a cohort of 2355 patients with the highest average cost of $177,400 per patient ($78,800 annualized).
Conclusions: The resource burden for management of neuroischemic ulcers of the lower extremity in patients with peripheral artery disease is substantial. Mitigating this burden may help reduce significant resource utilization.