Background: Transposition of the flexor digitorum longus tendon has been widely reported for the correction of flexible claw or hammer toe deformities. In contrast, a search of the literature revealed no previous reports of transposition of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon for treatment of these conditions. We performed a cadaver study to determine whether the flexor digitorum brevis tendon is long enough to be transferred to the dorsum of the proximal phalanx of the toe from its lateral or medial aspect.
Methods: Transposition of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon was attempted in 180 toes of cadaver feet: 45 second toes, 45 third toes, 45 fourth toes, and 45 fifth toes.
Results: The flexor digitorum brevis tendon was long enough to be successfully transposed in 100% of the second, third, and fourth toes and in 42 (93.3%) of the fifth toes. In the three remaining fifth toes (6.7%), the flexor digitorum brevis tendon was absent, a known anatomical variation.
Conclusions: Transfer of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon to the dorsum of the proximal phalanx can be performed for correction of claw or hammer toe deformities, especially in the second, third, and fourth toes. The transverse aponeurotic fibers originating from the extensor digitorum longus impede the transfer of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon, and meticulous excision of these fibers is essential to the success of the procedure. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 27–35, 2008)
Background: A case-control study was conducted to compare static plantar pressures and distribution of body weight across the two lower limbs, as well as the prevalence of gastrocnemius soleus equinus, in children with and without calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease).
Methods: The participants were 54 boys enrolled in a soccer academy, of which eight were lost to follow-up. Twenty-two boys with unilateral Sever’s disease comprised the Sever’s disease group and 24 healthy boys constituted a control group. Plantar pressure data were collected using pedobarography, and gastrocnemius soleus equinus was assessed.
Results: Peak pressure and percentage of body weight supported were significantly higher in the symptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group than in the asymptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group and the control group. Every child in the Sever’s disease group had bilateral gastrocnemius equinus, while nearly all children in the control group had no equinus.
Conclusions: High plantar foot pressures are associated with Sever’s disease, although it is unclear whether they are a predisposing factor or a result of the condition. Gastrocnemius equinus may be a predisposing factor for Sever’s disease. Further research is needed to identify other factors involved in the disease and to better understand the factors that contribute to abnormal distribution of body weight in the lower limbs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 17–24, 2011)