There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints related to day-to-day work among podiatric physicians. We sought to determine the relationships among musculoskeletal pain, job satisfaction, depression, and anxiety in Spanish podiatric physicians.
A convenience sample of 421 Spanish podiatric physicians was administered a survey that included questions about sociodemographic variables, musculoskeletal pain, job satisfaction, depression, and anxiety.
On average, respondents were found to have a high level of pain, a moderate level of job satisfaction, and low-to-moderate levels of depression and anxiety. Young single women had the highest levels of pain and anxiety. Analysis with the Student t test indicated significant differences between the sexes for levels of pain (P < .0001) and anxiety (P < .014). Job satisfaction was inversely related to depression and anxiety.
These findings, particularly the increased levels of pain, job dissatisfaction, anxiety, and depression in young single female podiatrists, indicate a need for strategies to reduce the risks posed by the work environment in podiatric medicine, thus minimizing the negative psychological and physical consequences of participating in the profession.
Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta is an autosomal-dominant disorder of the connective tissue. Also known as brittle bone disease, it renders those affected susceptible to fractures after minimal trauma. Therefore, it is important to minimize the risk of falls and subsequent fractures in patients with this disease. In-toeing is a common condition in children that can result from various pathologic entities, including anteversion, internal tibial torsion, and metatarsus adductus. These conditions can result in frequent tripping and other functional problems.
Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of in-toeing gait attributable to tibial or femoral torsion or metatarsus adductus in children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta. The study involved orthopedic and biomechanical examination of 15 children (9 girls and 6 boys) aged 4 to 9 years with confirmed type I osteogenesis imperfecta. Patients who used assistive ambulatory devices, such as canes, crutches, and wheelchairs, were excluded from the study.
Results: Of the 15 children studied, 12 (80%) demonstrated previously undiagnosed in-toeing gait attributable to torsional deformity or metatarsus adductus in all but one child.
Conclusions: Many children with confirmed type I osteogenesis imperfecta have in-toeing gait caused by torsional deformity or metatarsus adductus. Detection and control of in-toeing gait in children with osteogenesis imperfecta is important to prevent fractures resulting from trauma directly related to these conditions. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 326–329, 2009)
We used finite element analysis to study the mechanical displacements at three planes of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait using a new neutral or 10° angled memory alloy intramedullary implant (FDA K070598) used for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis.
After geometric reconstruction of the foot skeleton from computed tomographic images of a 36-year-old man, an intramedullary implant was positioned in the virtual model at the neutral and 10° angled positions at the proximal interphalangeal joints of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait. The obtained displacement results in three planes were compared with those derived from the nonsurgical foot model using finite element analysis.
These results support the successful use of either a neutral or angled implant for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, with the neutral implant yielding slightly better results.
The neutral implant reduced vertical displacement to a greater extent than did the angled implant. We also highlight the potential risk of iatrogenic curly toe when performing a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using an angled implant specifically at the fourth toe.
The first metatarsal bone is a viable source for autologous bone grafting in foot and ankle surgery and may serve as another convenient graft site to correct a flail toe deformity. We aimed to determine how progressive bone removal from the first metatarsal affects the mechanical redistribution of the foot and whether this bone removal increases the risk of fracture.
A three-dimensional finite element model developed from computed tomographic images obtained from a healthy man were used to evaluate traction stresses on the first metatarsal bone as a function of applied loads on the talus and Achilles tendon at two phases of the gait cycle (and according to the depth of bone removal).
Simulations indicated that when maximum load was applied to the Achilles tendon, tensile stress increased from 2.049 MPa in the intact foot to 5.941 MPa in the area of maximum bone harvest during the stance phase. Furthermore, as the volume of bone extracted from the first metatarsal increased, there was a redistribution of stress that differed significantly from that of the intact foot.
Although the maximum stress on the first metatarsal was not significantly affected by increasing the volume of bone harvested, the ankle should be splinted in plantarflexion during the postoperative period to eliminate the stance phase of gait and reduce the risk of metatarsal fracture.
Background: Transposition of the flexor digitorum longus tendon has been widely reported for the correction of flexible claw or hammer toe deformities. In contrast, a search of the literature revealed no previous reports of transposition of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon for treatment of these conditions. We performed a cadaver study to determine whether the flexor digitorum brevis tendon is long enough to be transferred to the dorsum of the proximal phalanx of the toe from its lateral or medial aspect.
Methods: Transposition of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon was attempted in 180 toes of cadaver feet: 45 second toes, 45 third toes, 45 fourth toes, and 45 fifth toes.
Results: The flexor digitorum brevis tendon was long enough to be successfully transposed in 100% of the second, third, and fourth toes and in 42 (93.3%) of the fifth toes. In the three remaining fifth toes (6.7%), the flexor digitorum brevis tendon was absent, a known anatomical variation.
Conclusions: Transfer of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon to the dorsum of the proximal phalanx can be performed for correction of claw or hammer toe deformities, especially in the second, third, and fourth toes. The transverse aponeurotic fibers originating from the extensor digitorum longus impede the transfer of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon, and meticulous excision of these fibers is essential to the success of the procedure. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 27–35, 2008)
Background: A variety of treatment modalities have been described for cutaneous warts. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of a topical formulation of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid in the treatment of plantar warts. This combination treatment is widely used in Europe and elsewhere but has not been described in the podiatric medical literature.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 144 patients with simple or mosaic plantar warts who were treated with a topical, pharmacy-compounded solution of cantharidin, 1%; podophyllotoxin, 5%; and salicylic acid, 30%. All of the patients, aged 8 to 52 years (mean ± SD, 20.9 ± 11.0 years), were treated according to the authors3 standard protocol. Of the 144 patients, 92 were being treated for the first time. None of the 52 previously treated patients had received more than one other type of treatment in the past.
Results: After 6 months of follow-up, complete eradication of the plantar warts was noted in 138 of the 144 patients (95.8%). Of these patients, 125 (86.8%) required a single application of the solution, and 13 (9.0%) needed two or more applications. No significant adverse effects or complications were observed.
Conclusion: A topical solution of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid was found to be safe and effective in the treatment of simple and mosaic plantar warts. This formulation is a promising alternative treatment modality for plantar warts. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 445–450, 2008)
Background: A case-control study was conducted to compare static plantar pressures and distribution of body weight across the two lower limbs, as well as the prevalence of gastrocnemius soleus equinus, in children with and without calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease).
Methods: The participants were 54 boys enrolled in a soccer academy, of which eight were lost to follow-up. Twenty-two boys with unilateral Sever’s disease comprised the Sever’s disease group and 24 healthy boys constituted a control group. Plantar pressure data were collected using pedobarography, and gastrocnemius soleus equinus was assessed.
Results: Peak pressure and percentage of body weight supported were significantly higher in the symptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group than in the asymptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group and the control group. Every child in the Sever’s disease group had bilateral gastrocnemius equinus, while nearly all children in the control group had no equinus.
Conclusions: High plantar foot pressures are associated with Sever’s disease, although it is unclear whether they are a predisposing factor or a result of the condition. Gastrocnemius equinus may be a predisposing factor for Sever’s disease. Further research is needed to identify other factors involved in the disease and to better understand the factors that contribute to abnormal distribution of body weight in the lower limbs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 17–24, 2011)