Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
There are no conclusive data to support the contention that diabetic patients have an increased frequency of ankle equinus compared with their nondiabetic counterparts. Additionally, a presumed contributing cause of foot ulceration is ankle joint equinus. Therefore, we sought to determine whether persons with diabetes have a higher prevalence of ankle joint equinus than do nondiabetic persons.
A prospective pilot survey of 102 outpatients (43 diabetic and 59 nondiabetic) was conducted. Demographic and historical data were obtained. Each patient underwent a standard lower-extremity examination, including the use of a biplane goniometer to measure ankle joint range of motion.
Equinus, defined as ankle dorsiflexion measured at 0° or less, was found in 24.5% of the overall population. In the diabetes cohort, 16 of 43 patients (37.2%) were affected compared with 9 of 59 nondiabetic participants (15.3%) (P = .011). There was a threefold risk of equinus in the diabetic population (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–8.44; P < .013). The equinus group had a history of ulceration in 52.0% compared with 20.8% of the nonequinus group (P = .003). Equinus, therefore, imparted a fourfold risk of ulceration (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.58–10.77; P < .004). We also found a 2.8 times risk of equinus in patients with peripheral neuropathy (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.11–7.09; P < .029).
Equinus may be more prevalent in diabetic patients than previously reported. Although we cannot prove causality, we found a significant association between equinus and ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 84–88, 2012)
Diagnosis and treatment of longitudinal tears of the tibialis anterior tendon are not well documented in the surgical literature. Described here is successful primary surgical repair of a longitudinally torn tibialis anterior tendon in a 60-year-old woman. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 390–393, 2005)
A posterior bone-block operation is one of the few treatment options in cases of paralytic footdrop. A case with a flail ankle and no bony deformity is ideal for this approach. Two cases of acquired flail ankle with equinus deformity were treated using a new modification of the bone-block technique that does not interfere with subtalar joint motion. A bone block harvested from the iliac crest was fixed at the posterior talus after partial resection of the posterior tubercle. The graft was in contact with the posterior malleolus of the tibia. Satisfactory correction was achieved, and both patients could walk without the use of external splints. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 160–164, 2007)
The authors undertook a study to evaluate the prevalence of ankle equinus and its potential relationship to high plantar pressure in a large, urban population with diabetes mellitus. The first 1,666 consecutive people with diabetes (50.3% male; mean [±SD] age, 69.1 ± 11.1 years) presenting to a large, urban, managed-care outpatient clinic were enrolled in this longitudinal, 2-year outcomes study. Patients received a standardized medical and musculoskeletal assessment at the time of enrollment, including evaluation at an onsite gait laboratory. Equinus was defined as less than 0° of dorsiflexion at the ankle. The overall prevalence of equinus in this population was 10.3%. Patients with equinus had significantly higher peak plantar pressures than those without the deformity and were at nearly three times greater risk for presenting with elevated plantar pressures. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the two groups. However, patients with equinus had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without equinus. Having a high index of suspicion for this deformity and subsequently addressing it through conservative or surgical means may help to reduce the risk of foot ulceration and amputation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(9): 479-482, 2002)
Leg pain in the athlete is common and has many different etiologies. The most common causes include muscle or tendon injury, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, and exertional compartment syndrome. Less common causes of leg pain include lumbosacral radiculopathy, lumbosacral spinal stenosis, focal nerve entrapment, vascular claudication from atherosclerosis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, and venous insufficiency. This article reviews the essential history and physical examination findings and the various causes of leg pain to help the clinician pinpoint the diagnosis and facilitate the athlete’s return to sport participation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 321-324, 2003)
Osteochondromas are benign bone tumors that arise from divergent cartilage formation, most commonly in childhood versus adulthood. We report the case of a healthy 42-year-old woman who presented with an unusual solitary posterolateral ankle mass with associated pain and ankle impingement with 6-week follow-up. The patient was successfully treated with open surgical excision, with bone sent for pathologic diagnosis of benign osteochondroma. The patient returned to normal baseline function with no pain at 6-week follow-up. An open posterior ankle incision approach was performed to remove suspicious enlarged bony growth from the posterior talar process to be sent for pathologic evaluation. Pathologic evaluation reported benign osteochondroma of the posterior talar process, and the patient subsequently had routine healing of the postoperative incision site and return to full function without pain or disability at 6-week follow-up. This case study adds to the current understanding, incidence, occurrence, and treatment of rare osteochondromas occurring in the posterior talar process.
A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub–first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure. The second stage corrected the osseous deformity with a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The ulceration has remained closed since the procedures, with complete resolution of pain.