Background: An observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of onychomycosis in clinically suspected diabetic neuropathic patients and to assess the reliability of the diagnosis.
Methods: One hundred successive type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with diabetic neuropathy were followed. Diabetic neuropathy was defined by a vibration perception threshold greater than 25 V and onychomycosis by clinical diagnosis. Samples of the most affected nail were taken. Potassium hydroxide testing and culture were performed. Photographs of the nails were used by two dermatologists for diagnosis.
Results: The mean ± SE age was 62.3 ± 11.4 years for the 20 onychomycotic patients and 60.3 ± 10.4 years for the entire cohort; 14 onychomycotic patients (70%) were male versus 56 in the full cohort (56%) (P < .05). The prevalence of onychomycosis was 20% (culture and potassium hydroxide test positive) and 24% (culture positive). Twenty or 30 patients were positive by the potassium hydroxide test, depending on the investigator. The most frequent pathogen found was Trichophyton rubrum (11 of 20 patients; 55%). The positive predictive values of the dermatologist’s diagnoses were 57.8% and 35.6%, and the negative predictive values were 85.0% and 90.5%. The two expert’s results were significantly different (P < .05).
Conclusions: The diagnosis of onychomycosis is difficult to make. The diagnostic methods commonly used are not satisfactory. If onychomycosis is dangerous for the diabetic foot, a better diagnostic method is needed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 135–139, 2009)
Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft-tissue infection characterized by extensive necrosis of subcutaneous fat, neurovascular structures, and fascia. In general, fascial necrosis precedes muscle and skin involvement, hence its namesake. Initially, this uncommon and rapidly progressive disease process can present as a form of cellulitis or superficial abscess. However, the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with necrotizing fasciitis suggest a more serious, ominous condition. A delay in diagnosis can result in progressive advancement highlighted by widespread infection, multiple-organ involvement, and, ultimately, death. We present a case of limb salvage in a 52-year-old patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and progressive fascial necrosis. A detailed review of the literature is presented, and current treatment modalities are described. Aggressive surgical debridement, comprehensive medical management of the sepsis and comorbidities, and timely closure of the resultant wound or wounds are essential for a successful outcome. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(1): 67–72, 2006)
The relationship between hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes after surgery has been widely documented. Long-term glucose control has been recognized as a risk factor for postoperative complications. In the foot and ankle literature, long-term glycemic control as a potential perioperative risk factor is not well studied. Our goal was to investigate whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was independently associated with postoperative complications in a retrospective cohort study.
Three hundred twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study to assess risk factors associated with postoperative foot and ankle surgery complications.
Bivariate analyses showed that HbA1c level and having at least one comorbidity were associated with postoperative infections. However, after adjusting for other covariates, the only significant factor was HbA1c level, with each increment of 1% increasing the odds of infection by a factor of 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–1.99). For postoperative wound-healing complications, bivariate analyses showed that body mass index, having at least one comorbidity, and HbA1c level were significant factors. After adjusting for other covariates, the only significant factors for developing postoperative wound complications were having at least one comorbidity (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.22–3.37) and HbA1c level (each 1% increment) (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02–1.53).
In this retrospective study, HbA1c level had the strongest association with postoperative foot and ankle surgery complications in patients with diabetes.
Vancomycin is a common treatment option for skin and skin structure infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Given the increasing prevalence of MRSA, vancomycin is widely used as empirical therapy. In patients with lower-limb infections, antimicrobial penetration is often reduced because of decreased vascular perfusion. In this study, we evaluated the tissue concentrations of vancomycin in hospitalized patients with lower-limb infections.
An in vivo microdialysis catheter was inserted near the margin of the wound and was perfused with lactated Ringer's solution. Tissue and serum samples were obtained after steady state for one dosing interval. Tissue concentrations were corrected for percentage of in vivo recovery using the retrodialysis technique.
Nine patients were enrolled (mean ± SD: age, 54 ± 19 years; weight, 105.6 ± 31.5 kg). Patients received a mean of 12.8 mg/kg of vancomycin every 12 hours (n = 7), every 8 hours (n = 1), or every 24 hours (n = 1). Mean ± SD steady-state trough vancomycin concentrations in serum and tissue were 11.1 ± 3.3 and 6.0 ± 2.6 μg/mL. The mean ± SD 24-hour free drug areas under the curve for serum and wound were 283.7 ± 89.4 and 232.8 ± 75.7 μg*h/mL, respectively. The mean ± SD tissue penetration ratio was 0.8 ± 0.2.
These data suggest that against MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 μg/mL or less, vancomycin achieved blood pharmacodynamic targets required for the likelihood of success. Reduced concentrations may contribute to poor outcomes and the development of resistance. As other literature suggests, alternative agents may be needed when the pathogen of interest has a minimum inhibitory concentration greater than 1 μg/mL.
Background: Point-of-care testing for infection might help podiatric physicians optimize management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Glycologic’s proprietary GLYWD product has been developed to detect changes in a patient’s immunologic/inflammatory response related to wound infection. We evaluated how bacterial presence in DFUs relates to GLYWD test outcome.
Methods: This was a single-organization, prospective, controlled cohort study of clinical opinion versus GLYWD test result for DFU infection status and the appraisal of bacterial presence in the wounds and semiquantitative microbiology swab at weeks 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18. Spearman correlation, backward elimination linear regression, and principal components analysis were applied to determine which variables, including degree of bacterial load, are associated with a positive clinical opinion or GLYWD result for DFU infection.
Results: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, and 142 complete wound appraisals were conducted; a consensus outcome between clinical opinion and GLYWD result was achieved in most (n = 122, 86%). Clinical opinion significantly correlated with a higher bacterial load (Spearman rho = 0.38; P < .01), whereas GLYWD did not (rho = –0.010; P = .91). This observation was corroborated with logistic regression analysis, in which a previous observation of both clinical opinion and GLYWD associating with wound purulence and erythema was also confirmed.
Conclusions: Podiatric physicians are guided by hallmark signs of DFU infection, such as erythema and purulence; furthermore, we found that clinical opinion of infection correlates with increased bacterial load. GLYWD test results match clinical opinion in most cases, although the results obtained with this point-of-care method suggest that the degree of bacterial presence might not necessarily mean a higher chance of inducing an immunologic/inflammatory host response to said bacteria.
Background: Diabetic lower-extremity disease is the primary driver of mortality in patients with diabetes. Amputations at the forefoot or ankle preserve limb length, increase function, and, ultimately, reduce deconditioning and mortality compared with higher-level amputations, such as below-the-knee amputations (BKAs). We sought to identify risk factors associated with amputation level to understand barriers to length-preserving amputations (LPAs).
Methods: Diabetic lower-extremity admissions were extracted from the 2012-2014 National Inpatient Survey using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The main outcome was a two-level variable consisting of LPAs (transmetatarsal, Syme, and Chopart) versus BKAs. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine contributions of patient- and hospital-level factors to likelihood of undergoing LPA versus BKA.
Results: The study cohort represented 110,355 admissions nationally: 42,375 LPAs and 67,980 BKAs. The population was predominantly white (56.85%), older than 50 years (82.55%), and male (70.38%). On multivariate analysis, living in an urban area (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.48; P < .0001) and having vascular intervention in the same hospital stay (RRR = 2.96; P < .0001) were predictive of LPA. Patients from rural locations but treated in urban centers were more likely to receive BKA. Minorities were more likely to present with severe disease, limiting delivery of LPAs. A high Elixhauser comorbidity score was related to BKA receipt.
Conclusions: This study identifies delivery biases in amputation level for patients without access to large, urban hospitals. Rural patients seeking care in these centers are more likely to receive higher-level amputations. Further examination is required to determine whether earlier referral to multidisciplinary centers is more effective at reducing BKA rates versus satellite centers in rural localities.
Digestion of collagen with clostridial collagenase (CC) produces peptides that can induce cellular responses consistent with wound healing in vivo. However, nonhealing human wounds are typically in a state of chronic inflammation. We evaluated the effects of CC on markers of inflammation in cell culture and wound fluid from diabetic patients.
Lipopolysaccharide-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from interferon-γ–activated THP-1 monocytes was measured in the presence or absence of CC or CC collagen digests. In the clinical study, 17 individuals with mildly inflamed diabetic foot ulcers were randomized to receive CC ointment (CCO) or hydrogel. Weekly assessments included wound appearance and measurements. Wound exudate was collected at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. A multiplex assay was used to measure levels of analytes, including those associated with inflammation and with inflammation resolution.
Lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were found in media of cells cultured with CC or CC digests of collagen type I or III than for untreated lipopolysaccharide controls (P < .05). Clinically, CCO and hydrogel resulted in improvement in wound appearance and a decrease in mean wound area. The CCO, but not the hydrogel, was found to increase the level of analytes associated with resolution of inflammation while decreasing those associated with inflammation. There was a general correlation between resolution of inflammation and healing.
These results support a hypothesis that debridement with CCO is associated with decreased inflammation and greater progress toward healing.
There is increasing pressure from industry to use advanced wound care products and technologies. Many are very expensive but promise to reduce overall costs associated with wound care. Compelling anecdotal evidence is provided that inevitably shows wounds that failed all other treatments but responded positively to the subject product. Evidence-based medicine is the standard by which physician-scientists must make their clinical care decisions. In an attempt to provide policy makers with the most current evidence on advanced wound care products, the Department of Veteran Affairs conducted an Evidence-based Synthesis Program review of advanced wound care products. This paper suggests how to take this information and apply it to policy to drive evidence-based care to improve outcomes and fiduciary responsibility.
Split-thickness skin grafts can be used for foot wound closure in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. It is unknown whether this procedure is reliable for all diabetic patients, with or without comorbidities of diabetes, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy.
We retrospectively reviewed 203 patients who underwent this procedure to determine significant differences in healing time, postoperative infection, and need for revisional surgery and to create a predictive model to identify diabetic patients who are likely to have a successful outcome.
Overall, compared with nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients experienced a significantly higher risk of delayed healing time and postoperative complication/infection and, hence, are more likely to require revisional surgery after undergoing the initial split-thickness skin graft procedure. These differences seemed to be related more to the presence of comorbidities than to diabetic status itself. Diabetic patients with preexisting comorbidities experienced a significantly increased risk of delayed healing time and postoperative infection and a higher need for revisional surgery compared with nondiabetic patients or diabetic patients without comorbidities. However, there were no significant differences in outcome between diabetic patients without comorbidities and nondiabetic patients.
For individuals with diabetes but without exclusionary comorbidities, split-thickness skin grafting may be considered an effective surgical alternative to other prolonged treatment options currently used in this patient population. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 223–232, 2013)
We evaluated whether direct or indirect endovascular revascularization based on the angiosome model affects outcomes in type 2 diabetes and critical limb ischemia.
From 2010 to 2015, 603 patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for critical limb ischemia and submitted to endovascular revascularization. Among these patients, 314 (52%) underwent direct and 123 (20%) indirect revascularization, depending on whether the flow to the artery directly feeding the site of ulceration, according to the angiosome model, was successfully acquired; 166 patients (28%) were judged unable to be revascularized. Outcomes were healing, major amputation, and mortality rates.
An overall healing rate of 62.5% was observed: patients who did not receive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty presented a healing rate of 58.4% (P < .02 versus revascularized patients). A higher healing rate was observed in the direct versus the indirect group (82.4% versus 50.4%; P < .001). The major amputation rate was significantly higher in the indirect versus the direct group (9.2% versus 3.2%; P < .05). The overall mortality rate was 21.6%, and it was higher in the indirect versus the direct group (24% versus 14%; P < .05).
These data show that direct revascularization of arteries supplying the diabetic foot ulcer site by means of the angiosome model is associated with a higher healing rate and lower risk of amputation and death compared with the indirect procedure. These results support use of the angiosome model in type 2 diabetes with critical limb ischemia.