Background: A feasibility study was conducted to characterize the effects of noncontact low-frequency ultrasound therapy for chronic, recalcitrant lower-leg and foot ulcerations.
Methods: The study was an open-label, nonrandomized, baseline-controlled clinical case series. Patients were initially treated with the Mayo Clinic standard of care before the addition of or the switch to noncontact low-frequency ultrasound therapy. We analyzed the medical records of 51 patients (median ± SD age, 72 ± 15 years) with one or more of the following conditions: diabetes mellitus, neuropathy, limb ischemia, chronic renal insufficiency, venous disease, and inflammatory connective tissue disease. All of the patients had lower-extremity ulcers, 20% had a history of amputation, and 65% had diabetes. Of all the wounds, 63% had a multifactorial etiology, and 65% had associated transcutaneous oximetry levels below 30 mm Hg.
Results: The mean ± SD treatment time of wounds during the baseline standard of care control period versus the noncontact low-frequency ultrasound therapy period was 9.8 ± 5.5 weeks versus 5.5 ± 2.8 weeks (P < .0001). Initial and end measurements were recorded, and percent volume reduction of the wound was calculated. The mean ± SD percent volume reduction in the baseline standard of care control period versus the noncontact low-frequency ultrasound therapy period was 37.3% ± 18.6% versus 94.9% ± 9.8% (P < .0001).
Conclusions: Using noncontact low-frequency ultrasound improved the rate of healing and closure in recalcitrant lower-extremity ulcerations. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 95–101, 2007)
New drugs and tissue replacements are currently being approved and integrated into treatment regimens for chronic wounds. This article focuses on a standardized procedure for the use of specific growth factor, a recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) manufactured for topical administration. The recommendations made in this article may not reflect product recommendations made by the manufacturer of the drug. Clinicians must be able to support any off-label indication for use of a product. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(1): 7-11, 2002)
Although numerous studies suggest the benefit of electrical stimulation (E-Stim) therapy to accelerate wound healing, the underlying mechanism of action is still debated. In this pilot study, we examined the potential effectiveness of lower-extremity E-Stim therapy to improve tissue perfusion in patients with diabetic foot ulcers.
Thirty-eight patients with diabetic foot ulcers underwent 60 min of active E-Stim therapy on acupuncture points above the level of the ankle joint using a bioelectric stimulation technology platform. Perfusion changes in response to E-Stim were assessed by measuring skin perfusion pressure (SPP) at baseline and during 30 and 60 min of therapy; retention was assessed 10 min after therapy. Tissue oxygen saturation (SatO2) was measured using a noninvasive near-infrared camera.
Skin perfusion pressure increased in response to E-Stim therapy (P = .02), with maximum improvement observed at 60 min (11%; P = .007) compared with baseline; SPP reduced 10 min after therapy but remained higher than baseline (9%; P = .1). Magnitude of improvement at 60 min was negatively correlated with baseline SPP values (r = –0.45; P = .01), suggesting that those with lower perfusion could benefit more from E-Stim therapy. Similar trends were observed for SatO2, with statistically significant improvement for a subsample (n = 16) with moderate-to-severe peripheral artery disease.
This study provides early results on the feasibility and effectiveness of E-Stim therapy to improve skin perfusion and SatO2. The magnitude of benefit is higher in those with poorer skin perfusion. Also, the effects of E-Stim could be washed out after stopping therapy, and regular daily application might be required for effective benefit in wound healing.
The utility of wound debridement has expanded to include the management of all chronic wounds, even in the absence of infection and gross necrosis. Biofilms, metalloproteases on the wound base, and senescent cells at the wound edge irreversibly change the physiologic features of wound healing and contribute to a pathologic, chronic inflammatory environment. The objective of this review is to provide surgeons with a basic understanding of the processes of debridement in the noninfected wound. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 353–359, 2010)
Below-the-knee amputations are regarded as definitive treatment for calcaneal osteomyelitis. They may be less than desirable in patients with a viable midfoot and forefoot. Partial and total calcanectomies have been reported as an alternative for limb salvage. However, the durability of the residual limb is questionable.
A systematic review was undertaken to identify material relating to the potential for limb salvage with partial or total calcanectomy in ambulatory patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis. Studies eligible for inclusion consecutively enrolled ambulatory patients older than 18 years who underwent partial or total calcanectomy without adjunctive free tissue transfer for the treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis and had a mean follow-up of 12 months or longer.
Sixteen studies involving 100 patients (76 partial and 28 total calcanectomies) met all of the inclusion criteria. Weighted mean follow-up was 33 months. Minor complications with subsequent healing occurred in less than 24% of patients. Most major complications were related to residual soft-tissue infection and osteomyelitis. Approximately 10% of patients required a major lower-extremity amputation. Major complications and major lower-extremity amputations occurred more frequently after total calcanectomy and in patients with a diagnosis of diabetes. Eighty-five percent of patients maintained or improved their ambulatory status postoperatively. Only 3% of patients decreased their ambulatory status postoperatively, becoming unlimited household ambulators.
This systematic review provides evidence that partial or total calcanectomy is a viable option for limb salvage in ambulatory patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(5): 396–405, 2012)
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a skin disease characterized by wounds with blue-to-purple undermined borders surrounding purulent necrotic bases. This article reports on a patient with a circumferential, full-thickness, and partially necrotic lower-extremity ulceration of unknown etiology. Results of laboratory tests and arterial and venous imaging studies were found to be within normal limits. The diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was made on the basis of the histologic appearance of the wound tissue after biopsy as a diagnosis of exclusion. Negative pressure wound therapy was undertaken, which saved the patient’s leg from amputation. Although negative pressure wound therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of chronic wounds in a variety of circumstances, this is the first documented use of this technique to treat an ulceration secondary to pyoderma gangrenosum. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 171–174, 2005)