The number of partial-foot amputations performed is increasing, and many recommendations have been made regarding the use of prostheses and footwear designed to prevent higher-level amputations in this population. The present study investigated the use of prostheses and shoe inserts and the types of footwear worn by partial-foot amputees in the inner city to determine whether previous recommendations are being followed as well as whether new prosthetic styles are being used. The study surveyed 110 patients (73 men and 37 women) with a mean age of 58.6 years (range, 21 to 86 years) with partial-foot amputations of all levels. The results showed that about one-half of all patients wore a shoe-insert orthosis. Although 54% wore some form of special footwear to accommodate and protect the residual foot, no patient in this study wore a shoe with a rocker-bottom sole. Only one patient with a transmetatarsal amputation used a brace and only one patient in the entire study wore a modern cosmetic foot prosthesis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(1): 34-49, 2001)
In this retrospective review, 19 diabetic patients with significant lower-extremity pathology were assessed to determine the success of limb salvage in cases of varying complexity. The patients were either scheduled or at risk for below-the-knee amputation before intervention. After the limb-salvage procedure, patients were followed for 4 months to 9 years. Eighteen patients went on to have successful procedures, avoiding below-the-knee amputation; one patient had an above-the-knee amputation. The results demonstrate the benefits of an aggressive team approach with limb salvage as a goal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 457-462, 2002)
Diabetic foot osteomyelitis is common and causes substantial morbidity, including major amputations, yet the optimal treatment approach is unclear. We evaluated an approach to limb salvage that combines early surgical debridement or limited amputation with antimicrobial therapy.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2007. The primary end point was cure, defined as not requiring further treatment for osteomyelitis of the affected limb. The secondary end point was limb salvage, defined as not requiring a below-the-knee amputation or a more proximal amputation.
Fifty patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis met the study criteria. Initial surgical management included local amputation in 43 patients (86%) and debridement without amputation in seven (14%). Most infections (n = 30; 60%) were polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (n = 23; 46%). Parenteral antibiotics were used in 45 patients (90%). Patients who had pathologic evidence of osteomyelitis at the surgical margin received therapy for a median of 43 days (interquartile range [IQR], 36–56 days), whereas those without evidence of residual osteomyelitis received therapy for a median of 19 days (IQR, 13–40 days). Overall, 32 patients (64%) were considered cured after a median follow-up of 26 months (IQR, 12–38 months). Fifteen of 18 patients (83%) who failed initial therapy were treated again with limb-sparing surgery. Limb salvage was achieved in 47 patients (94%), with only three patients (6%) requiring below-the-knee amputation.
In patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis, surgical debridement or limited amputation plus antimicrobial therapy is effective at achieving clinical cure and limb salvage. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(4): 273–277, 2012)
Chronic decubitus ulceration of the heels is a common condition encountered by podiatric physicians, especially in diabetic patients. Very often these ulcerations can progress to osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. Many times, this in turn leads to a below-the-knee amputation. A partial calcanectomy is a viable alternative to below-the-knee amputation. A more functional limb both mechanically and cosmetically is achieved, and the morbidity and mortality associated with the calcanectomy is less than with a below-the-knee amputation. A brief overview of the history and outcomes associated with this procedure is outlined and a case utilizing a partial calcanectomy is presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 369-372, 2001)
Background: More than 86,000 Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergo nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations annually. The opioid-prescribing practice of podiatric surgeons remains understudied. We hypothesized that patients with T2DM who undergo any forefoot amputation while using antidepressant medication will have reduced odds of using opioids beyond 7 days.
Methods: We completed a retrospective cohort study examining patients with T2DM who underwent forefoot amputation (toe, ray, transmetatarsal). Data were restricted to patients with a hemoglobin A1c level less than 8.0% and an ankle-brachial index greater than 0.8. The outcome was use of postoperative opioids beyond 7 days. Patients received an initial opioid prescription of 7 days or less. We developed simple logistic regression models to identify the odds of a patient using opioids beyond 7 days by patient variables: age, race, sex, amputation level, body mass index, antidepressant medication use, and marital status. Variables with P < .1 in the univariate analysis were included in the multiple logistic regression model.
Results: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. Antidepressant use and marital status were the only statistically significant variables. Adjusting for marital status, patients with antidepressant use had decreased odds (odds ratio, 0.018; 95% confidence interval, 0.001–0.229; P = .002) of using opioids beyond 7 days after a diabetic forefoot amputation.
Conclusions: Patients with T2DM who used antidepressants had significantly reduced odds of using opioids beyond 1 week after forefoot amputations compared with those without antidepressant use. We proposed an underlying diabetic foot–pain–depression cycle. To break the cycle, podiatric surgeons should screen this population for depression preoperatively and postoperatively and not hesitate to make a mental health referral if warranted. Nontraumatic amputations can be a traumatic experience for patients; psychiatrists and other mental health providers should be members of limb preservation teams.
The decision to amputate or reconstruct after high-energy foot injuries is controversial. A 25-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with a complex injury to his left foot sustained during a mine explosion, and the second to fifth digits and metatarsals of the left foot had been traumatically amputated before admission to our facility. The complex left foot defect was reconstructed with an osteocutaneous fibula flap during a single session. An osteotomy was performed on the bone segment of the flap, and both lateral longitudinal and transverse arches were repaired. Both aesthetic and functional outcomes were very satisfactory, including independent ambulation, light jogging, and full performance of activities of daily living without limitation. Many factors, including comorbidities, should be considered during the decision-making process of amputating or reconstructing complex foot injuries.
Although verrucous hyperplasia may be common in high-risk insensitive feet, the literature contains little discussion on this topic. Treatment of verrucous hyperplasia is aimed primarily at reducing the causative forces. In cases that result from edema, external compression has proved to be adequate. If verrucous hyperplasia on the foot results from frictional forces, then shoe modifications with proper fit, accommodative liners, or fillers in the case of amputation are necessary. In recalcitrant cases, excision of the affected tissue with local soft-tissue or graft coverage has been successful. We describe a 56-year-old man with verrucous hyperplasia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 348–350, 2006)
Background: After partial bone resection for osteomyelitis there is a high rate of osteomyelitis occurrence in the remaining bone due to adherent bacterial biofilm, dysvascular infected spongiosum bone, and absence of a surgical technique that can prevent osteomyelitis developing in the remaining bone.
Methods: Presented is a surgical procedure using a dicalcium phosphate bone void filler putty with antibiotics placed into the remaining bone to prevent the development of osteomyelitis, therefore preventing amputation.
Results: This procedure has an osteomyelitis eradication rate of 94.8% and also decreases the rate of lower-extremity amputations.
Conclusions: This procedure provides a single stage surgical technique for infected open bone defects decreasing the previously reported high osteomyelitis reoccurrence rate of 57.1% to 5.2%.
Background: Because value-based care is critical to the Affordable Care Act success, we forecasted inpatient costs and the potential impact of podiatric medical care on savings in the diabetic population through improved care quality and decreased resource use during implementation of the health reform initiatives in California.
Methods: We forecasted enrollment of diabetic adults into Medicaid and subsidized health benefit exchange programs using the California Simulation of Insurance Markets (CalSIM) base model. Amputations and admissions per 1,000 diabetic patients and inpatient costs were based on the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 2009-2011 inpatient discharge files. We evaluated cost in three categories: uncomplicated admissions, amputations during admissions, and discharges to a skilled nursing facility. Total costs and projected savings were calculated by applying the metrics and cost to the projected enrollment.
Results: Diabetic patients accounted for 6.6% of those newly eligible for Medicaid or health benefit exchange subsidies, with a 60.8% take-up rate. We project costs to be $24.2 million in the diabetic take-up population from 2014 to 2019. Inpatient costs were 94.3% higher when amputations occurred during the admission and 46.7% higher when discharged to a skilled nursing facility. Meanwhile, 61.0% of costs were attributed to uncomplicated admissions. Podiatric medical services saved 4.1% with a 10% reduction in admissions and amputations and an additional 1% for every 10% improvement in access to podiatric medical care.
Conclusions: When implementing the Affordable Care Act, inclusion of podiatric medical services on multidisciplinary teams and in chronic-care models featuring prevention helps shift care to ambulatory settings to realize the greatest cost savings.
Fibrosarcoma is an uncommon, malignant soft-tissue tumor that is rarely found as a primary neoplasm in the foot. A case report is presented that demonstrates a large, locally invasive fibrosarcoma of the plantar aspect of the foot with initial symptoms consistent with plantar fasciitis. Below-the-knee amputation was performed as curative treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(9): 507-511, 2002)