Diabetic foot complications are costly and often recurrent. The use of diabetic footwear has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetic foot ulcerations. For diabetic footwear to be most effective, it must be worn at least 60% of the time. All reported rates of compliance fall well short of this level. The style and appearance of the shoe have been commonly blamed for this poor compliance. This study evaluates patients’ motivations and perceptions regarding diabetic footwear. A patient’s decision to use diabetic footwear is based on the perceived value of the shoe and not on the patient’s previous history of foot complications or the aesthetics of diabetic footwear. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(6): 485-491, 2003)
External thermoregulation using noncontact normothermic wound therapy accelerates wound closure by second intention in areas of existing osteomyelitis before surgical excision compared with standard wound care. This pilot study consisted of two arms. The control arm received standard wound care, which resulted in complete ulcer healing at an average of 127 days. The treatment arm received noncontact normothermic wound therapy, which resulted in complete ulcer healing at an average of 59 days, or 54% faster than in the control arm. This new treatment allows the physician to decrease the rate of limb loss and recurrent osteomyelitis by decreasing the morbidity of bone reinfection through the wound bed. There have been no published studies or case presentations addressing thermoregulation in the management of wounds associated with osteomyelitis. Although noncontact normothermic wound therapy is not a direct treatment for osteomyelitis, this new treatment option results in significantly accelerated healing of wounds associated with osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(1): 18-22, 2003)
Diabetes is a major chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality. Diabetic preventive care services are essential in the management and outcome of the disease. More than other preventive diabetic care services, preventive care of diabetic retinopathy has been emphasized and recommended by practitioners and insurance companies. We investigated the status of preventive care in the diabetic population.
Information was collected from 420 outpatients aged 30 to 80 years. The patients were divided into two groups: those with well-controlled blood sugar levels (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] level ≤7%) and those with uncontrolled blood sugar levels (HbA1c level >7%).
Data analysis indicated that for both groups, 93% of the participants were seen for diabetic eye care at least once and 78% were getting an annual eye examination regularly. In the controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar groups, 26% and 32% of patients, respectively, had ever seen a nephrologist and 38% and 49%, respectively, had ever seen a cardiologist. In the controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar groups, 32% and 38% of patients, respectively, had visited a podiatric physician. For statistical analysis and comparison of results between the two groups, we applied the χ2 test and calculated 95% confidence intervals. There were some significant differences regarding the complications of diabetes mellitus and preventive care.
There is a need for greater engagement by podiatric physicians and health-care providers to promote regular visits for the diabetic population to podiatric medical clinics.
Background: We sought to report the clinical results of a new conservative treatment modality that uses a shape memory alloy device in patients with ingrown toenail.
Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 41 patients with ingrown toenail treated with the K-D device (S&C Biotech, Seoul, South Korea) between April 2013 and July 2014. Recurrence rate, cosmetic results, pain during the treatment period, and patient satisfaction were the major outcome measures.
Results: Patients were followed for at least 6 months (mean ± SD, 8.6 ± 2.1 months; range, 6–12 months). Recurrence was seen in eight patients (19.5%). Mean time to recurrence was 6.2 months (range, 3–10 months). Thirty-one patients (75.6%) were satisfied with the treatment. Thirty-five patients (85.4%) rated the application and treatment period as painless, and the remaining six (14.6%) noted pain particularly during shoe wearing. Thirty-one patients (75.6%) rated the cosmetic results as “excellent,” four (9.8%) as “acceptable,” and six (14.6%) as “poor.” Satisfaction with the treatment, the cosmetic results, and pain were significantly worse in patients with recurrence (P = .0001 for all). All of the patients returned to their work immediately after application of the device. No complications occurred.
Conclusions: The K-D device is a safe and effective treatment method for ingrown toenail. Although the recurrence rate is higher than for surgical treatment methods, the K-D device is a practical and painless method that provides immediate return to work and daily activities and excellent or acceptable cosmesis in most patients.
Background: Weil osteotomy is a type of distal osteotomy for the treatment of lesser metatarsalgia by shortening the metatarsal length. We applied Weil and dorsal closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of Freiberg's disease.
Methods: Between September 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, we performed Weil and dorsal closing wedge osteotomy of the second metatarsal in 15 feet of 15 patients (12 women, three men) diagnosed as having Freiberg's disease. The mean patient age was 29 years (range, 19–51 years), and mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 36–72 months). Postoperative shortening of the metatarsal length was measured by comparing preoperative and postoperative radiographs. Visual analog scale scores, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society lesser metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores, and the passive range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint were evaluated at 24 months.
Results: The mean postoperative shortening of the metatarsal length was 3.2 mm. The mean visual analog scale and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society scores were 7.2 and 52.4 points preoperatively and 2.1 and 78.2 points at 24 months, respectively (P < .05). The mean range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint increased from 29.4° preoperatively to 46.5° postoperatively (P < .05). Various degrees of remodeling were observed at the dorsum of the metatarsal head at 24 months.
Conclusions: Weil and dorsal closing wedge osteotomy of the metatarsal seems to be effective for treating Freiberg's disease. It improves pain and function in terms of shortening the metatarsal length and restoring the metatarsophalangeal joint.
Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Khaled H. Aburisheh, Yousuf Al Farsi, Mohammad Al Derwish, Samir Ouizi, Fahad Alblaihi, Ali Jaber ALHagawy, Rakan Khalid AlSalem, Musab Abdualaziz Alageel, Mona Heide Toledo, and Amira M. Youssef
Charcot's arthropathy (CA) is a destructive rare complication of diabetes, and its diagnosis remains challenging for foot specialists and surgeons. We aimed to assess the clinical presentation and characteristics of CA and the frequencies of its various types.
This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016, and included 149 adults with diabetes diagnosed as having CA. Cases of CA were classified based on the Brodsky anatomical classification into five types according to location and involved joints.
The mean ± SD age of the studied cohort was 56.7 ± 11 years, with a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 21.2 ± 7.0 years. The CA cohort had poorly controlled diabetes and a high rate of neuropathy and retinopathy. The most frequent type of CA was type 4, with multiple regions involved at a rate of 56.4%, followed by type 1, with midfoot involvement at 34.5%. A total of 47.7% of the patients had bilateral CA. Complications affected 220 limbs, of which 67.7% had foot ulceration. With respect to foot deformity, hammertoe affected all of the patients; hallux valgus, 59.5%; and flatfoot, 21.8%.
There is a high rate of bilateral CA, mainly type 4, which could be attributed to cultural habits in Saudi Arabia, including footwear. This finding warrants increasing awareness of the importance of maintaining proper footwear to avoid such complications. Implementation of preventive measures for CA is urgently needed.
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common complaint among patients. Oftentimes, conservative treatment is inadequate, and surgical treatment is required. However, there is no published consensus regarding surgical intervention in reference to insertional Achilles tendinopathy.
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the surgical management of insertional Achilles tendinopathy and report which surgical procedures provide the greatest pain reduction and improvement in functional outcome. A review of PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was performed using a defined search strategy and inclusion criteria.
Of 2,863 articles identified using the defined strategy, 20 met the inclusion criteria (three prospective and 17 retrospective). Operative interventions included Achilles tendon debridement, reattachment with suture anchors, reconstruction with flexor hallucis longus tendon autograft or bone-patellar tendon autograft, and gastrocnemius recession. All of the studies, regardless of intervention, showed generalized improvement after surgery. Wide variation in outcome scoring systems prevented direct comparison between studies and interventions.
This systematic review did not identify a superior treatment for insertional Achilles tendinopathy but rather found that the surgical treatment should be based on the extent of tendon injury.
Peripheral nerve blocks at the ankle have long been used for foot surgery. However, when local foot and ankle blocks are inappropriate or contraindicated, general and spinal anesthesia are the common alternatives. Both have disadvantages and require added equipment and monitors. Combined popliteal and saphenous nerve blocks at the knee can offer a desirable alternative to general and spinal anesthesia for foot and ankle surgery. In addition, popliteal and saphenous nerve blocks provide anesthesia of the entire lower leg, thus permitting a greater variety of procedures to be performed. This article reviews the anatomical considerations, various block techniques, and surgical applications of this useful approach to lower-leg anesthesia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 368–374, 2004)
Background: Sophisticated methods of cryotherapy, such as application of a water-circulating device, have recently been popularized to provide a constant or intermittent therapeutic source in the foot and ankle postoperative setting. In this study, the efficacy and safety of three selected cryotherapy devices (Iceman, EBIce, and Ankle Cryo/Cuff) were investigated.
Methods: Each cryotherapy unit, in the coldest setting, was applied over standard surgical dressings in group I, over one layer of Jones compression bandage in group II, and over two layers of Jones compression bandage in group III on four individuals in excellent overall health. The skin temperature was then recorded every 15 min for 180 min in each trial.
Results: In group I, the Iceman was the only device that required discontinuation in one subject, and the EBIce and Cryo/Cuff were tolerated in all of the subjects. However, the temperatures in all of the devices continued to decrease at the end of the trials. In group II, all of the cryotherapy devices controlled temperatures between 20°C (68°F) and 30°C (86°F). In group III, no device significantly lowered the initial surface skin temperature.
Conclusions: We achieved the safe and effective temperature range when the cryotherapy devices were applied over one layer of Jones compression dressing. The cryotherapy devices resulted in less predicable temperature declination when applied over the thinner surgical dressing. When the devices were applied over two layers of Jones compression dressing, surface skin temperature declination was minimal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(6): 439–446, 2007)
Plantar heel pain syndrome, which has a multifactorial and widely disputed etiology, affects more than 2 million people annually. A survey was conducted of members of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine about their strategies for managing plantar heel pain syndrome, especially the role of injectable corticosteroids. The respondents tended to be experienced (10–24 years in practice) podiatric physicians with a concentration in sports medicine. They reported that for early-stage plantar heel pain syndrome they generally recommend avoidance of wearing flat shoes and walking barefoot (92%), use of over-the-counter arch supports and heel cushions (90%), regular stretching of the calf muscles (88%), strapping of the foot (75%), cryotherapy applied directly to the affected part of the foot (67%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy (60%). When these measures fail to relieve heel pain, most of the responding podiatric physicians recommend using custom orthotic devices (60%) and corticosteroid injections (60%) as intermediate therapy. Surgical plantar fasciotomy (88%), cast immobilization (77%), and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (69%) are generally recommended as late-stage therapy for resistant cases. A staged approach seems to yield the best results in treatment of this common condition. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 68–74, 2007)