Surgical management of hallux rigidus using a polyvinyl alcohol synthetic cartilage implant has gained popularity among foot and ankle surgeons. Although uncommon, appropriate diagnosis and management of a periprosthetic implant infection is critical in limiting morbidity. We present a case report and staged technique for converting a first metatarsal synthetic cartilage hemiarthroplasty to arthrodesis in the setting of a periprosthetic joint infection.
This literature review sought to evaluate the current state of knowledge and guidelines surrounding the role of pH in the recovery of chronic nonhealing wounds. A systematic review of PubMed examining the relationship between pH and wound healing was completed. Seven sources were retrieved for review. The development of a highly structured and reproducible system of pH-driven therapy may add to the treatment algorithm for chronic nonhealing wounds.
Medication hypersensitivity is a constant variable that podiatric physicians face during their professional day. To avoid potential patient harm, an understanding of penicillin and cephalosporin hypersensitivities as it pertains to podiatric medicine needs to be achieved. To accomplish this, a narrative describing the signs, symptoms, and immunologic mechanisms for the basis of penicillin and cephalosporin drug hypersensitivities is presented. Second, specific medical literature serving as clinical-based evidence to support the prescribing of cephalosporins in patients with documented penicillin allergy is presented. Finally, a review of the medical and legal literature describing health-care provider liability regarding subsequent drug hypersensitivity is presented. The information contained in this review allows for the evolving paradigm that permits the prescribing of selective cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy as long as the allergic symptoms were not serious or life-threatening. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 479–488, 2008)
Selecting empirical therapy for a diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires knowing how likely infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is in a particular patient. We designed this study to define the risk factors associated with P aeruginosa in DFI.
We performed a preplanned microbiological subanalysis of data from a study assessing the effects of treatment with intralesional epidermal growth factor for diabetic foot wounds in patients in Turkey between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients were screened for risk factors, and the data of enrolled individuals were recorded in custom-designed patient data forms. Factors affecting P aeruginosa isolation were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, with statistical significance set at P < .05.
There were 174 patients enrolled in the main study. Statistical analysis was performed in 90 evaluable patients for whom we had microbiological assessments. Cultures were sterile in 19 patients, and 89 bacterial isolates were found in the other 71. The most frequently isolated bacteria were P aeruginosa (n = 23, 25.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12, 13.5%). Previous lower-extremity amputation and a history of using active wound dressings were the only statistically significant independent risk factors for the isolation of P aeruginosa in these DFIs.
This retrospective study provides some information on risk factors for infection with this difficult pathogen in patients with DFI. We need prospective studies in various parts of the world to better define this issue.
Open fracture-dislocation of the lower extremity poses a serious risk, has a high incidence of complications, and necessitates prompt surgical intervention. Patients need to be evaluated on presentation to the emergency department for neurovascular injury, soft-tissue insult, stability of the fracture, concomitant injuries, and overall medical/nutritional status. Implementation of a specific treatment protocol will decrease time to operative management and increase the overall success rate. Success after treatment of lower-extremity trauma should be defined as a noninfected, functional limb with optimal tissue preservation allowing ambulation. We present a case of open fracture-dislocation of the first ray treated with prompt debridement, skeletal stabilization, and immediate soft-tissue reconstruction. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 76–80, 2013)
Lower-Extremity Infections Caused by Serratia marcescens
A Report of Three Cases and a Literature Review
Serratia marcescens is a ubiquitous, facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative bacillus that has been cited to cause infection in immunocompromised populations. In the literature, S marcescens infections of the lower extremity have presented as granulomatous ulceration, abscess, bullous cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Herein we present a series of three cases of lower-extremity infections in which S marcescens was the sole or a contributing pathogen. We discuss the commonalities of these three cases as well as with those previously cited. All three patients presented with some combination of a similar set of clinical characteristics, including bullae formation, liquefactive necrosis, and black necrotic eschar. All three patients were diabetic and had peripheral vascular disease.