The authors present an unusual case of untreated gout leading to major bony destructions in both metatarsophalangeal joints, leading to joints of enormous dimensions. If untreated, gout can cause disabling destructions with direct influence on both private and working life, even in young patients. In potentially noncompliant patients, simple surgical procedures and postoperative regimes are valuable treatment options resulting in acceptable clinical results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(4): 334–337, 2012)
Background: Treatment of osteoarthritis of the ankle is similar to that of any other large joint and includes conservative and surgical options. Surgical treatment in severe cases is fusion or joint replacement, whereas conservative treatment is limited and includes mainly ankle supports and physiotherapy. Hyaluronic acid was discovered by Meyer and Palmer in 1934 and has recently been widely used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of an intra-articular preparation containing sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the ankle.
Methods: We studied 16 patients aged 31 to 79 years (mean age, 43 years) with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis of 9 months' to 27 years' duration. The radiographic severity of the ankle osteoarthritis was graded II, III, or IV according to Kellgren and Lawrence. Arthritic ankles underwent intra-articular injections of 25 mg of sodium hyaluronate for 5 consecutive weeks. Follow-up visits were performed 4, 8, 11, 17, and 32 weeks after treatment and included clinical evaluation and objective scoring.
Results: Global assessment showed improvement in 13 of 15 patients who completed the study. There was improvement by 20% in range of motion and a significant reduction in pain assessed by visual analog scale and ankle-hindfoot scores, all statistically significant. Seven months after treatment, no decrease in efficacy was shown. Two patients did not show any significant improvement in global assessment after treatment. One patient was dropped from follow-up owing to concurrent back surgery.
Conclusions: Symptomatic relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the ankle was achieved by injection of an intra-articular preparation containing sodium hyaluronate. There were significant improvements, in objective and subjective parameters, that lasted for more than 7 months. Ankle intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate is a valid conservative treatment for ankle osteoarthritis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 93–100, 2010)
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of stabilization of the lateral ligament combined with joint debridement in patients with ligamentous moderate neutral ankle osteoarthritis with those achieved for patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis.
We reviewed integrated data from 40 patients (40 ankles) with ligamentous moderate ankle osteoarthritis. Matched for age, gender, and follow-up duration, they were divided into two groups by preoperative coronal plane hindfoot moment arm values (HMAV): neutral (20 ankles, ≤15 mm) and varus (20 ankles, >15 mm) deformity. Stabilization of lateral ligament combined with joint debridement was performed. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hind foot score, hindfood moment arm values, and classification of Takakura were used to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes after a mean follow-up period of 64.2 months (range, 60-84 months).
Mean post-operative AOFAS was 86.0 and 72.6 in the neutral and varus groups, respectively. The post-operative AOFAS of both groups improved significantly, although the outcome improvement of the neutral group was better than that of the varus group (P = 0.0006). There was obvious improvement in HMAV of the neutral group (P = 0.0469) and less improvement in HMAV of the varus group (P = 0.8509). The mean postoperative HMAV was 4.60 mm (0–10 mm) and 17.85 mm (8–23 mm) in the neutral and varus groups, respectively. The radiographic classification of Takakura was unchanged in the neutral group, whereas four cases in the varus group had a worse classification.
Stabilization of the lateral ligament combined with joint debridement for ligamentous moderate ankle osteoarthritis showed better clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients with neutral alignment than that achieved for patients with varus malalignment.
Plantar heel pain syndrome, which has a multifactorial and widely disputed etiology, affects more than 2 million people annually. A survey was conducted of members of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine about their strategies for managing plantar heel pain syndrome, especially the role of injectable corticosteroids. The respondents tended to be experienced (10–24 years in practice) podiatric physicians with a concentration in sports medicine. They reported that for early-stage plantar heel pain syndrome they generally recommend avoidance of wearing flat shoes and walking barefoot (92%), use of over-the-counter arch supports and heel cushions (90%), regular stretching of the calf muscles (88%), strapping of the foot (75%), cryotherapy applied directly to the affected part of the foot (67%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy (60%). When these measures fail to relieve heel pain, most of the responding podiatric physicians recommend using custom orthotic devices (60%) and corticosteroid injections (60%) as intermediate therapy. Surgical plantar fasciotomy (88%), cast immobilization (77%), and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (69%) are generally recommended as late-stage therapy for resistant cases. A staged approach seems to yield the best results in treatment of this common condition. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 68–74, 2007)
Sea urchin spine injuries have been reported in the hand and foot, but there are no published cases in the Achilles tendon. We report an unusual case of Achilles tendinopathy secondary to sea urchin spine injury. The patient had Achilles tendon pain that increased over time and was worsened with weightbearing activity. His left ankle plantarflexion was limited by pain. He had received medical care 3 months earlier to remove sea urchin spines after stepping on a long-spined sea urchin. Bedside ultrasound and imaging studies revealed that there were foreign bodies related to sea urchin spines on the surface of the tendon. The patient was given education about proper footwear and activity modification. His symptoms resolved over time, and he avoided surgical intervention.
Osteomyelitis of the distal tibia with involvement of the distal physis can lead to various deformities around the ankle and foot. Calcaneus deformity of the foot is usually secondary to paralytic disorders. A 14-year-old boy presented with calcaneus deformity as a result of osteomyelitis of the distal tibia. Involvement of the distal tibial epiphysis as a result of osteomyelitis of the distal tibia can lead to calcaneus deformity. This deformity has not been reported in the literature. Osteomyelitis of the distal tibia should also be included as a differential diagnosis of calcaneus deformity.
Sixteen subjects with hemophilia A of levels 1–5 stage of joint damage were tested over a 6-week period to evaluate the efficacy of functional foot orthoses. The level of ankle bleeds (hemarthrosis) before and after the intervention with functional foot orthoses was determined by evaluating pain, disability, and activity levels. All subjects reported a significant reduction of ankle bleeds coinciding with the intervention of functional foot orthoses. The use of a foot-pain disability measure clearly showed significant reduction in the level of pain experienced by the subjects and in their overall index score. However, the disability and activity index scores showed no significant improvement after the intervention with orthoses. This finding would support the use of functional foot orthoses to treat patients with hemophilia A, as significant reduction in pain levels appears to greatly improve the lives of the patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(5): 240-244, 2001)
This case report discusses the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of a 22-year-old man with extrapulmonary tuberculosis of the foot. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and accounts for less than 10% of osteoarticular tuberculosis. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging correlations are introduced. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(3): 246–249, 2008)
Background: Most clinical studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) report assessments based on traditional clinical scores or radiographic analysis. Only a few studies have used modern instrumentation for quantitative functional analysis during the execution of activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to use gait analysis to compare the functional performance of patients who underwent TAR versus a control population.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of ten consecutive patients who had undergone meniscal-bearing TAR. Clinical and functional assessments were performed at a mean follow-up of 34 months with a modified Mazur scoring system and state-of-the-art gait analysis.
Results: Gait analysis assessment of TAR at medium-term follow-up showed satisfactory results for all patients, with adequate recovery of range of motion. Because the literature reports unsatisfying long-term results, it is important to evaluate these patients over a longer follow-up period.
Conclusions: This study showed that TAR yields satisfactory, but not outstanding, general functional results at nearly 3 years’ follow-up. These gait analysis results highlight the importance of integrating in vivo measurements with the standard clinical assessments of patients who underwent TAR while they perform activities of daily living. These results also emphasize the importance of evaluating the functional outcome of TAR over time. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 19–26, 2008)