We describe the results in seven patients who underwent surgery to lengthen a short first metatarsal via callus distraction. The increased length achieved ranged from 13 to 48 mm, with an average of 20.2 mm. The technique was successful in restoring length and improving symptoms, although several complications were encountered. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 51–60, 2008)
Nontraumatic bony abnormalities of the foot occur at different rates, according to the literature. However, it is uncommon to see rare variations presenting together in one patient. This article discusses two less common anomalies: fused os intermetatarseum and polymetatarsia without polydactyly. Etiology, symptomology, diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed, in addition to the relationship of the two conditions to each other. We then discuss a case where both anomalies are present at the same time in a 17-year-old patient.
We report on the rare case of multiple open interphalangeal dislocations. This uncommon pathologic condition results from dorsiflexion and axial loading of the digit. In the present patient, closed reduction was not possible. We review the literature on this pathologic condition and present a case of open irreducible dislocation of the lesser interphalangeal joints complicated by peripheral neuropathy and treated with resectional arthroplasty.
Verrucous carcinoma of the foot is a rare malignancy, and proper diagnosis can be delayed. Furthermore, misdiagnosis often results in delayed appropriate treatment. Herein, we present an unusual case of verrucous carcinoma of the fifth toe with bone invasion in a 63-year-old woman that was mistaken for a plantar wart for 3 years. The condition was treated by ray amputation. We emphasize the need for appropriate biopsy to achieve an accurate diagnosis.
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumor originating from osteoblasts, and it is mostly seen in long bones of lower limbs. The distal phalanx of the foot is an atypical location for an osteoid osteoma, and lesions occurring in this location may be a diagnostic challenge. A 22-year-old man presented with a complaint of severe pain on the second distal phalanx of his right foot. An osteoid osteoma was suspected after radiologic evaluation. The lesion was surgically excised and removed completely by curettage. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of an osteoid osteoma. The patient was followed-up for a 9-month period without any symptoms or recurrence.
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor, also known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS), is a solitary, nodular, firm, benign, soft-tissue tumor that arises from the synovial lining of a tendon. The etiology is unknown. It is a rare soft-tissue tumor, with an overall incidence of one in 50,000 individuals, and usually affects people aged between 30 and 50 years. Magnetic resonance imaging tends to be the imaging modality of choice, used for surgical preparation. Widely accepted treatment involves local excision with or without radiotherapy. The author presents a case study involving a patient with an abnormally large, longstanding GCT-TS, diagnosed with clinical examination and imaging modalities, surgically excised, and further confirmed by pathology reports. Topic of discussion includes a review of GCT-TS.
Treatment of chronic wounds of the lower extremity requires a systematic, multidisciplinary approach as well as flexibility in order to achieve acceptable, consistent short-term and long-term results. Maggots, once considered an obsolete therapeutic modality, can be a useful addition to the armamentarium of the foot and ankle specialist. This article describes the use of maggot debridement therapy for intractable wounds of the lower extremity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 398-401, 2002)
Osteoid osteomas are most likely to occur in the talar neck and can be classified as cortical, cancellous, or subperiosteal according to the position of the tumor nidus. However, cases located on the bearing surface of the talus are rare. Herein, the patient presented with an osteoid osteoma on the bearing surface of the talus and achieved good curative effects with arthroscopic resection associated with autologous iliac crest graft.
A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.
Retronychia, the posterior embedding of the nail bed into the proximal nail fold, can be a complex clinical dermatologic diagnosis that may mimic other inflammatory ungual diseases or tumors of the nail. It has been related to a history of severe systemic conditions that secondarily affect the nail matrix and is commonly associated with onychomadesis. We present a case of retronychia of the foot with a purely traumatic origin, nonconcomitant with onychomadesis, that was diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound in a long-time practitioner of martial arts who was otherwise healthy. Color Doppler ultrasound is an excellent imaging technique for supporting the diagnosis of retronychia. It provides information on the exact location and morphology of the nail plate as well as the presence of inflammatory signs in the ungual and proximal periungual regions. Additionally, this imaging technique can support the differential diagnosis with other nail conditions. Since there are many sports or activities that can potentially injure the toenails, retronychia may be an underestimated entity and the present case can raise the awareness of this condition and show the usefulness of color Doppler ultrasound.