A review of the scientific literature was performed 1) to identify studies describing the most common running injuries and their relation to the risk factors that produce them and 2) to search for potential and specific protective factors. Spanish and English biomedical search engines and databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Database Enfermería Fisioterapia Podología [ENFISPO], Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were queried (February 1 to November 30, 2013). A critical reading and assessment was then performed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Spanish tool. In total, 276 abstracts that contained the selected key words were found. Of those, 25 identified and analyzed articles were included in the results. Injuries result from inadequate interaction between the runner's biomechanics and external factors. This leads to an excessive accumulation of impact peak forces in certain structures that tends to cause overuse injuries. The main reasons are inadequate muscle stabilization and pronation. These vary depending on the runner's foot strike pattern, foot arch morphology, and sex. Specific measures of modification and control through running footwear are proposed.
Use of nerve decompression in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a controversial treatment characterized as being of unknown scientific effectiveness owing to lack of level I scientific studies.
Herein, long-term follow-up data have been assembled on 65 diabetic patients with 75 legs having previous neuropathic foot ulcer and subsequent operative decompression of the common peroneal and tibial nerve branches in the anatomical fibro-osseous tunnels.
The cohort’s previously reported low recurrence risk of less than 5% annually at a mean of 2.49 years of follow-up has persisted for an additional 3 years, and cumulative risk is now 2.6% per patient-year. Nine of 75 operated legs (12%) have developed an ulcer in 4,218 months (351 patient-years) of follow-up. Of the 53 contralateral legs without decompression, 16 (30%) have ulcerated, of which three have undergone an amputation. Fifty-nine percent of patients are known to be alive with intact feet a mean of 60 months after decompression.
The prospective, objective, statistically significant finding of a large, long-term diminution of diabetic foot ulcer recurrence risk after operative nerve decompression compares very favorably with the historical literature and the contralateral legs of this cohort, which had no decompression. This finding invites prospective randomized controlled studies for validation testing and reconsideration of the frequency and contribution of unrecognized nerve entrapments in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and diabetic foot complications. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 380–386, 2013)
At the end of an anatomical peninsula, the foot in diabetes is prone to short- and long-term complications involving neuropathy, vasculopathy, and infection. Effective management requires an interdisciplinary effort focusing on this triad. Herein, we describe the key factors leading to foot complications and the critical skill sets required to assemble a team to care for them. Although specific attention is given to a conjoined model involving podiatric medicine and vascular surgery, the so-called toe and flow model, we further outline three separate programmatic models of care—basic, intermediate, and center of excellence—that can be implemented in the developed and developing world. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 342–348, 2010)
Diabetic foot complications are costly and often recurrent. The use of diabetic footwear has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetic foot ulcerations. For diabetic footwear to be most effective, it must be worn at least 60% of the time. All reported rates of compliance fall well short of this level. The style and appearance of the shoe have been commonly blamed for this poor compliance. This study evaluates patients’ motivations and perceptions regarding diabetic footwear. A patient’s decision to use diabetic footwear is based on the perceived value of the shoe and not on the patient’s previous history of foot complications or the aesthetics of diabetic footwear. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(6): 485-491, 2003)
Background: The use of cushioned or shock-absorbing insoles has been suggested as a mechanism to reduce the impact forces associated with running, thereby protecting against overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of cushioned insoles reduced impact forces during running in healthy subjects.
Methods: Sixteen recreational runners (9 females and 7 males) ran at a self-selected pace for five trials with and without the use of cushioned insoles. During each trial, ground reaction forces, tibial accelerations, lower-extremity kinematics, and subject-perceived comfort were recorded. All variables were tested with the level of statistical significance set at α = .05.
Results: The use of cushioned insoles resulted in significant reductions in mean vertical ground reaction force peak impact (6.8%) and ground reaction force loading rate (8.3%), as well as peak tibial acceleration (15.8%). Spectral analysis of the tibial acceleration data in the frequency range associated with impact accelerations (12–25 Hz) revealed no change in the predominant frequency or the power of the predominant frequency. The knee flexion angle at initial contact and perceived comfort were similar for the two conditions.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of one type of cushioned insole in reducing peak impact force and tibial acceleration at initial foot-ground contact during running. The impact reduction observed was independent of knee kinematic adjustments or changes in perceived comfort. Further study is required to determine whether the reduction in loading that accompanied the use of the cushioned insoles can affect the incidence of running-related injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 36–41, 2008)
Wound debridement, when systematically performed, may be as important as off-loading in reducing the prevalence of chronic inflammatory by-products in a wound and thus in converting a chronic wound into an acute one. Although it has been suggested that aggressive surgical debridement of wounds may be beneficial, there have been few, if any, technical descriptions of this aspect of therapy. It is therefore the purpose of this article to describe the general principles, process, and technique of outpatient surgical debridement of noninfected, nonischemic neuropathic diabetic foot wounds performed at the authors’ institutions. The authors hope to foster further discussion leading to improvement in the process and the prevalence of such debridement. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 402-404, 2002)
Osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease until a fracture occurs. The prevalence of osteoporosis will rise with the aging of the population. Recent advances have led to more efficacious treatment options. Targeted screening, educating patients about preventive strategies, and providing appropriate treatment for those at high risk will allow physicians to reduce the enormous morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 187-193, 2004)