We describe a 70-year-old nonimmunocompromised woman with spontaneous bilateral ankle and midfoot sepsis and a deep-space abscess of the right lower leg. Salvage of both limbs was achieved by aggressive bilateral soft-tissue and osseous debridement, including a four-compartment fasciotomy of the right lower leg, antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate bone cement implantation, delayed allogeneic bone grafting of the osseous defects impregnated with autologous platelet-rich plasma bilaterally, and external fixation immobilization, implantable bone growth stimulation, and split-thickness skin graft coverage of the right lower leg, ankle, and foot. Osseous incorporation of the bone grafts bilaterally occurred 8 weeks after surgery. No soft-tissue or osseous complications occurred during the postoperative period or at 18-month follow-up except for arthrofibrosis in the right ankle; there was no evidence of recurrent abscesses, sequestrum, or wound-related problems. A review of the literature regarding bilateral pedal sepsis and the techniques used for limb salvage in this patient are presented in detail. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 139–147, 2006)
Background: We investigated the mechanism of delayed would healing caused by diabetes and measured the dynamic changes in matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) levels. We noted differences in the ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 in the wounds of diabetic and nondiabetic rats.
Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 g were randomly assigned to either the control group or the streptozotocin-induced diabetes group. Then, full-thickness excision wounds were created on the middle of the back of each animal. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after incision. The content of collagen was quantified by Masson’s staining and the macrophage marker, and CD68 was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Messenger RNA and protein expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was measured by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively.
Results: Diabetic rats exhibited slower wound healing than control animals (P < .05). On days 3, 7, and 14 after incision, higher levels of MMP-9 messenger RNA and protein expression were detected in the diabetic group compared with the control group (P < .05), and expression of TIMP-1 messenger RNA and protein was significantly decreased. In addition, the ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 was stable in controls, whereas there was a marked increase in the ratio in diabetic skin wounds.
Conclusions: The balance between MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1, is disturbed in diabetic skin tissue after injury, which may lead to histologic abnormality of diabetic skin and delayed wound healing. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(6): 489–496, 2009)
Background: Adhesions after tendinopathy in individuals who perform physical work and those physically active in middle age are a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons. We evaluated the effects of human-derivated amniotic membrane on tendon healing, adhesions, angiogenesis, and the inflammatory process.
Methods: Thirty-five rats were divided evenly into five groups, and the left lower extremity was used in this study. No interventions were applied to the control group (group 5). In the other groups, Achilles tendons were partially cut to the midline. Then, primary repair (group 1), amniotic membrane treatment with no repair (group 2), primary repair and amniotic membrane treatment (group 3), or secondary healing with no repair (group 4) was performed.
Results: Use of amniotic membrane in tendon healing resulted in decreased adhesion formation and positive effects on collagen sequencing and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, for the vascular endothelial growth factor evaluation there was no difference among the amniotic membrane repair groups, but there was an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor positivity compared with the control group.
Conclusions: These data show that amniotic membrane treatment can alter biological behavior and induce surface-dependent angiogenesis and can have angiogenetic effects on ischemia and inflammation.
Background: Diabetic lower-extremity disease is the primary driver of mortality in patients with diabetes. Amputations at the forefoot or ankle preserve limb length, increase function, and, ultimately, reduce deconditioning and mortality compared with higher-level amputations, such as below-the-knee amputations (BKAs). We sought to identify risk factors associated with amputation level to understand barriers to length-preserving amputations (LPAs).
Methods: Diabetic lower-extremity admissions were extracted from the 2012-2014 National Inpatient Survey using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The main outcome was a two-level variable consisting of LPAs (transmetatarsal, Syme, and Chopart) versus BKAs. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine contributions of patient- and hospital-level factors to likelihood of undergoing LPA versus BKA.
Results: The study cohort represented 110,355 admissions nationally: 42,375 LPAs and 67,980 BKAs. The population was predominantly white (56.85%), older than 50 years (82.55%), and male (70.38%). On multivariate analysis, living in an urban area (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.48; P < .0001) and having vascular intervention in the same hospital stay (RRR = 2.96; P < .0001) were predictive of LPA. Patients from rural locations but treated in urban centers were more likely to receive BKA. Minorities were more likely to present with severe disease, limiting delivery of LPAs. A high Elixhauser comorbidity score was related to BKA receipt.
Conclusions: This study identifies delivery biases in amputation level for patients without access to large, urban hospitals. Rural patients seeking care in these centers are more likely to receive higher-level amputations. Further examination is required to determine whether earlier referral to multidisciplinary centers is more effective at reducing BKA rates versus satellite centers in rural localities.
There is increasing pressure from industry to use advanced wound care products and technologies. Many are very expensive but promise to reduce overall costs associated with wound care. Compelling anecdotal evidence is provided that inevitably shows wounds that failed all other treatments but responded positively to the subject product. Evidence-based medicine is the standard by which physician-scientists must make their clinical care decisions. In an attempt to provide policy makers with the most current evidence on advanced wound care products, the Department of Veteran Affairs conducted an Evidence-based Synthesis Program review of advanced wound care products. This paper suggests how to take this information and apply it to policy to drive evidence-based care to improve outcomes and fiduciary responsibility.
Clinical podiatric medical practice encompasses a wide spectrum of podiatric medical and surgical problems. Technological advances such as imaging have greatly improved diagnostic acumen; however, physical diagnosis and blood testing remain extremely important factors in reinforcing diagnostic hypotheses as a part of differential diagnosis. There are certain blood tests of importance that the podiatric medical practitioner should be familiar with in everyday medical and surgical practice. The purpose of this article is to identify and highlight which blood tests are truly essential and practical in terms of diagnosis. This article encompasses blood tests pertinent to the clinical areas of hematology, hemostasis, electrolytes, endocrine, cardiac, rheumatology, nephrology, and gastroenterology. Careful selection of these tests and proper interpretation of their results will help reinforce diagnostic hypotheses.
Much of the research into health and safety in podiatric medicine to date has focused on measuring particular hazards. This study examines legislative awareness and compliance in Irish podiatric medical practices and aspects of health and safety practice.
Podiatric physicians practicing in Ireland completed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey that included measures of health and safety knowledge and awareness, compliance with legislative requirements, perceived risks, and health status.
Of 250 podiatric physicians who were contacted, 101 completed the survey (response rate, 40%). Legislative knowledge and compliance were low among respondents. A Student t test revealed that the use of safety control measures was more frequent among podiatric physicians in practice for less than 20 years (P < .05). Musculoskeletal disorders and back injuries were the most frequently reported health concerns.
This study demonstrates the need for interventions to increase awareness of legislative requirements among podiatric physicians as a first step to increase levels of regulatory compliance.
Background: After failing to statistically confirm a perceived pattern noted on radiographs that the sesamoids were proximally positioned in patients with hallux limitus compared with a control population without evidence of the deformity, the probable causes of this failure were examined. Measurement error was briefly considered but rejected owing to the careful manner in which the measurements were taken. The most plausible explanations were that the observations were incorrect and that the radiographs, which were retrospectively analyzed, were taken in a manner that distorted the spatial relationships between the metatarsal and the tibial sesamoid to a point that the results did not reflect reality.
Methods: This study examines potential difficulties in obtaining consistently reliable radiographic data regarding the spatial relationships of the metatarsal and the tibial sesamoid and establishes guidelines to minimize experimental error. Criteria for measuring metatarsal sesamoidal distances to the radiographic plate are established, along with application of the criteria to a control population. The principle of radiographic image distortion as it relates to these objects is presented, and, based on a predetermined range of radiographic angles, radiographic image distortion is calculated for the metatarsal head and the tibial sesamoid separately.
Results: By using accepted trigonometric principles, a mathematical model is developed that makes it possible to collectively quantify image shift between the two objects.
Conclusions: Criteria are established that, if followed, should minimize image distortion when it is important to measure metatarsal sesamoidal distances. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 1–9, 2010)
There are many theoretical models that attempt to accurately and consistently link kinematic and kinetic information to musculoskeletal pain and deformity of the foot. Biomechanical theory of the foot lacks a consensual model: clinicians are enticed to draw from numerous paradigms, each having different levels of supportive evidence and contrasting methods of evaluation, in order to engage in clinical deduction and treatment planning. Contriving to find a link between form and function lies at the heart of most of these competing theories and the physical nature of the discipline has prompted an engineering approach. Physics is of great importance in biology and helps us to model the forces that the foot has to deal with in order for it to work effectively. However, the tissues of the body have complex processes that are in place to protect them and they are variable between individuals. Research is uncovering why these differences exist and how these processes are governed. The emerging explanations for adaptability of foot structure and musculoskeletal homeostasis offer new insights into how clinical variation in outcomes and treatment effects might arise. These biological processes underlie how variation in the performance and use of common traits, even within apparently similar subgroups, make anatomical distinction less meaningful and are likely to undermine the justification of a “foot type.” Furthermore, mechanobiology introduces a probabilistic element to morphology based on genetic and epigenetic factors.
This randomized, prospective, multicenter, open-label study was designed to test whether a topical, electrolyzed, superoxidized solution (Microcyn Rx) is a safe and effective treatment for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Sixty-seven patients with ulcers were randomized into three groups. Patients with wounds irrigated with Microcyn Rx alone were compared with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus normal saline wound irrigation and with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus Microcyn Rx wound irrigation. Patients were evaluated on day 3, at the end of treatment on day 10 (visit 3), and 14 days after completion of therapy for test of cure (visit 4).
In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline–treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx–treated patients.
Microcyn Rx is safe and at least as effective as oral levofloxacin for mild diabetic foot infections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 484–496, 2011)