This randomized, prospective, multicenter, open-label study was designed to test whether a topical, electrolyzed, superoxidized solution (Microcyn Rx) is a safe and effective treatment for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Sixty-seven patients with ulcers were randomized into three groups. Patients with wounds irrigated with Microcyn Rx alone were compared with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus normal saline wound irrigation and with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus Microcyn Rx wound irrigation. Patients were evaluated on day 3, at the end of treatment on day 10 (visit 3), and 14 days after completion of therapy for test of cure (visit 4).
In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline–treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx–treated patients.
Microcyn Rx is safe and at least as effective as oral levofloxacin for mild diabetic foot infections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 484–496, 2011)
In this prospective study, 30 patients (28 men and 2 women) with open ankle fractures were treated with early debridement and immediate stable internal fixation after anatomical reduction to achieve better functional results after early mobilization. The procedure was performed an average of 8 hours (range, 6–15 hours) after injury. According to the classification system of Gustilo and Anderson, 11 fractures (37%) were grade I, 12 (40%) were grade II, 5 (17%) were grade IIIA, and 2 (7%) were grade IIIB. Six complications occurred: four patients had superficial skin necrosis and two had loss of reduction, resulting in residual ankle stiffness. Twenty patients had excellent results, eight had good results, and two had fair results according to the modified criteria of Ketenjian and Shelton. We found that immediate debridement, anatomical reduction, and internal fixation of open ankle fractures leads to better functional results, especially in grade I and grade II injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 120–124, 2006)
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the most common cause of hospitalization for patients with diabetes. Studies have shown diabetic patients have high readmission rates. It is important to identify variables that contribute to readmission. This study aimed to investigate clinical variables associated with 30-day hospital readmission in patients with DFI.
We conducted a retrospective study of adults admitted to the hospital for DFI between July 1, 2012, and July 1, 2015. We identified patients by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and randomly selected 35% of medical records for review. Patients were excluded if they did not have a DFI by review, were pregnant, or were incarcerated. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. Data collected included baseline demographics, medical comorbidities, substance abuse, homelessness, tobacco use, and laboratory and surgical pathology data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors.
Of 140 included patients, 106 (76%) were male. Median age was 55 years and length of stay (LOS) was 7 days. In univariate analysis, 31 patients (22%) were readmitted in the 30 days after the index hospitalization. Factors associated with readmission included treatment failure, elevated C-reactive protein level, and hospital LOS (P < .05). In multivariate analyses, LOS and treatment failure were independent predictors of readmission.
The 30-day readmission rate for patients with DFI is high. Treatment failure, C-reactive protein, and LOS are independently associated with readmission. More work is needed to determine reasons for readmission so that appropriate measures can be taken before discharge.
An increased reliance on vancomycin to treat bacterial infections has led to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant organisms. The podiatric physician must select and use vancomycin with due caution. This article presents a general review of vancomycin’s pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and dosing recommendations. Literature citations of clinically based evidence regarding the development and use of vancomycin nomograms are also presented. A vancomycin dosing nomogram is introduced as an effective tool for the prescribing podiatric physician. Appropriate use of the information presented may improve patient outcomes and enable the podiatric physician to treat patients with less effort and at a lower cost. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 389–394, 2004)
The surgical management of distal intra-articular comminuted fracture of the tibia (pilon fracture) is difficult because complications frequently develop. The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique is generally accepted for this type of fracture. In this study, complications developed after open reduction and internal fixation using multiple miniplates for accurate reduction of small fracture fragments. Therefore, when we use this technique, we need to pay attention to the development of complications such as nonunion, avascular necrosis, and osteomyelitis by the disruption of both endosteal blood supply by fracture and periosteal blood supply during approach or reduction.
We describe the management of a patient who presented to a family-practice clinic with gangrenous digits. After a thorough evaluation, she was found to have protein C deficiency, which produced a hypercoagulable state. Differential diagnosis in the evaluation of the coagulopathic patient with appropriate hematologic tests is briefly discussed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(5): 491–493, 2005)
We report a case of an unusual and unsuspected chronic infection creating a soft-tissue mass in the foot of a 35-year-old woman. The causative agent, Mycobacterium gordonae, is usually encountered as a laboratory contaminant. Only rarely does it manifest as a clinical infection. The patient’s presumed predisposing risk factor was a history of barefoot gardening. An iatrogenic source, corticosteroid injections, was also considered. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 311–313, 2008)
Swelling of the leg is a frequent finding in podiatric medicine. Unless the patient draws notice to the condition or the physician is diligent in asking questions and examining the extremity, the condition may be viewed as minor and given little attention. Swelling of the leg can be a clinical sign of certain systemic diseases, lymphatic and venous disorders, or other miscellaneous causes. Dermatologic consequences linked to many of these causes of swelling are well documented. What is not as well chronicled is a dramatic skin alteration associated with chronic lymphedema. This article provides an overview and a case presentation of the unusual and debilitating skin condition related to chronic lymphedema of the lower extremity known as elephantiasis nostras verrucosa. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(5): 442–444, 2006)