Plantar thrombophlebitis is a rare abnormality with few cases reported in the literature. Coexistence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection increases its relevance. The disease is generally classified as idiopathic, and it is suggested that it is attributed to conditions that lead to hypercoagulability. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with thrombosis of the lateral plantar veins and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease of 2019. The plantar vein thrombosis diagnosis was made by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was suspected per clinical information and confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Treatment was successful using rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions. The different measurement conditions may contribute to inconsistent conclusions regarding the role of ankle dorsiflexion in several pathologic conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions.
We compared ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in a weightbearing versus a nonweightbearing position in 43 healthy volunteers. Measurements were taken separately by two examiners.
Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion measurements produced significantly different results (P < .0001). The two measurements correlated moderately (r = 0.6 and r = 0.64 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively; P < .001).
Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion measurements produce significantly different results and only a moderate correlation, suggesting that these two measurements should not be used interchangeably as measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(5): 406–411, 2012)
The Fowler-Philip, calcaneal pitch, and total calcaneal angles define the radiologic morphology of the rearfoot. We studied these angles in healthy adolescents.
We studied 141 feet. Patients with inflammatory or traumatic injuries were excluded. The mean participant age was 11.5 years. The Fowler-Philip, calcaneal pitch, and total calcaneal angles were measured on lateral weightbearing radiographs. The statistics included descriptive, sample size (α=0.05 and β=0.20), the Student t test, and analysis of variance; P < .05 was considered significant.
The samples were 141 and 35 radiographs for the Fowler-Philip and calcaneal pitch angles, respectively. Ninety percent, 25.1%, and 97.4% of the adolescents had normal Fowler-Philip, calcaneal pitch, and total calcaneal angles, respectively. In addition, 9.9%, 74.9%, and 2.6% of the values were outside the reference ranges, respectively. The Fowler-Philip angle decreased and the calcaneal pitch angle increased significantly with age (P = .0005). The total calcaneal angle did not change with age (P = .65).
The mean angle values in a pediatric population did not differ from those in adults. We found a high percentage of calcaneal pitch angles outside the reference range. Age influenced the Fowler-Philip and calcaneal pitch angles but not the total calcaneal angle. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 32–35, 2013)
Background: Flip-flops are becoming a common footwear option. Casual observation has indicated that individuals wear flip-flops beyond their structural limit and have a different gait while wearing flip-flops versus shoes. This alteration in gait may cause the anecdotal foot and lower-limb discomfort associated with wearing flip-flops.
Methods: To investigate the effect of sneakers versus thong-style flip-flops on gait kinematics and kinetics, 56 individuals (37 women and 19 men) were randomly assigned to a footwear order (flip-flops or sneakers first) and were asked to wear the assigned footwear on the day before and the day of testing. On each testing day, participants were videotaped as they walked at a self-selected pace across a force platform. A 2 (sex) × 2 (footwear) repeated-measures analysis of variance (P = .05) was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Significant interaction effects of footwear and sex were found for maximal anterior force, attack angle, and ankle angle during the swing phase. Footwear significantly affected stride length, ankle angle at the beginning of double support and during the swing phase, maximal braking impulse, and stance time. Flip-flops resulted in a shorter stride, a larger ankle angle at the beginning of double support and during the swing phase, a smaller braking impulse, and a shorter stance time compared with sneakers.
Conclusions: The effects of footwear on gait kinetics and kinematics is extensive, but there is limited research on the effect of thong-style flip-flops on gait. These results suggest that flip-flops have an effect on several kinetic and kinematic variables compared with sneakers. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 251–257, 2010)
Measurement of weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion (DF) passive range of motion (PROM) has been suggested as a way to estimate ankle kinematics during gait; however, no previous study has demonstrated the relationship between ankle DF during gait and ankle DF PROM with knee extension. We examine the relationship between maximum ankle DF during gait and nonweightbearing and weightbearing ankle DF PROM with knee extension.
Forty physically active individuals (mean ± SD age, 21.63 ± 1.73 years) participated in this study. Ankle DF PROM with knee extension was measured in the nonweightbearing and weightbearing conditions; maximum ankle DF during gait was assessed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The relationship between each variable was calculated using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and the difference in ankle DF PROM between the nonweightbearing and weightbearing conditions was analyzed using a paired t test.
The weightbearing measurement (r = 0.521; P < .001) for ankle DF PROM showed a greater correlation with maximum ankle DF during gait than did the nonweightbearing measurement (r = 0.245; P = .029). Ankle DF PROM was significantly greater in the weightbearing than in the nonweightbearing condition (P < .001) despite a significant correlation between the two measurements (r = 0.402; P < .001).
These findings indicate that nonweightbearing and weightbearing measurements of ankle DF PROM with knee extension should not be used interchangeably and that weightbearing ankle DF PROM with the knee extended is more appropriate for estimating ankle DF during gait.
Data from the free student-run podiatric medical clinic at Clínica Tepati at the University of California, Davis, were used to analyze medical and economic impacts on health-care delivery and to extrapolate the economic impact to the national level. Clínica Tepati also provides an excellent teaching environment and services to the uninsured Hispanic population in the Greater Sacramento area.
In this analysis, we retrospectively reviewed patient medical records for podiatric medical encounters during 15 clinic days between November 2010 and February 2012. The economic impact was evaluated by matching diagnoses and treatments with Medicare reimbursement rates using International Classification of Diseases codes, Current Procedural Terminology codes, and the prevailing Medicare reimbursement rates.
Sixty-three podiatric medical patients made 101 visits during this period. Twenty patients returned to the clinic for at least one follow-up visit or for a new medical concern. Thirty-nine different diagnoses were identified, and treatments were provided for all 101 patient encounters/visits. Treatments were limited to those within the clinic's resources. This analysis estimates that $17,332.13 worth of services were rendered during this period.
These results suggest that the free student-run podiatric medical clinic at Clínica Tepati had a significant medical and economic impact on the delivery of health care at the regional level, and when extrapolated, nationally as well. These student-run clinics also play an important role in medical education settings.
Background: A few studies have investigated the relationship between foot posture measures and plantar pressure parameters, but no study has investigated the correlation of foot posture measures with all primary parameters consisting of contact area (CA), maximum force (MF), and peak pressure (PP). We aimed to determine the relationship of the Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6) and navicular drop (ND) with plantar pressure parameters during static standing and preferred walking.
Methods: Seventy people were included. Navicular drop and the FPI-6 were used to assess foot posture. Plantar pressure parameters including CA, MF, and PP were recorded by a pressure-sensitive mat during barefoot standing and barefoot walking at preferred speed. All assessments were repeated three times and averaged. Pearson correlation coefficients below 0.300 were accepted as negligible and higher ones were interpreted.
Results: Navicular drop was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot and second metatarsal; also, the FPI-6 was moderately correlated with dynamic CA under the midfoot (0.500 < r < 0.700). The other interpreted correlations were poor (0.300 < r < 0.500). Both measures were correlated with dynamic CA under the second and third metatarsals; dynamic CA and MF under the midfoot; and static CA, MF, and PP under the first metatarsal and hallux (P < .01). Navicular drop was also correlated with dynamic MF under the first metatarsal and dynamic CA under the fourth metatarsal (P < .01). Furthermore, ND was correlated with static CA and PP under the second metatarsal and static PP under the fifth metatarsal (P < .01). The FPI-6 was also correlated with dynamic MF and PP under the hallux (P < .01).
Conclusions: The correlations between foot posture measures and plantar pressure variables are poor to moderate. The measures may be useful in the clinical assessment of medial forefoot problems related to prolonged standing and midfoot complaints related to high force during walking. Furthermore, the FPI-6 may provide valuable data regarding hallux complaints related to the high loads during walking.
The foot postures of 39 subjects were evaluated for excessive pronation by means of six static weightbearing and five nonweightbearing measurements, and two types of footprint indexes. Visual evidence of windlass function was recorded by video. Chi-square analysis revealed that excessive pronation does not affect the establishment of the windlass mechanism. The position of the forefoot relative to the rearfoot, subtalar joint axis position, and navicular drift/foot length ratio were significantly associated with dynamic windlass function. These results suggest that selected static measurements may have value in predicting some aspects of dynamic foot function during the propulsive phase of the gait cycle. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(5): 245-250, 2001)
Although medial tibial stress syndrome is one of the most common lower-extremity overuse injuries, its pathomechanics remain controversial. Two popular theories have been proposed to account for this condition: tibial bending and fascial traction. This article evaluates the role of fascial traction in medial tibial stress pathomechanics. We hypothesized that with contraction of the deep leg flexors tension would be imparted to the tibial fascial attachment at the medial tibial crest. We also speculated that circumferential straps would dampen tension directed to the medial tibial crest. The amount of strain present in the tibial fascia adjacent to its distal medial tibial crest insertion during loading of the leg was investigated as a descriptive laboratory pilot study using three fresh cadaver specimens. Strain in the distal tibial fascia was measured using strain gauges placed in the fascia at its medial tibial crest insertion. As tension on the posterior tibial, flexor digitorum longus, and soleus tendons increased, strain in the tibial fascia increased in a consistent linear manner (P < .0001). We conclude that fascial tension may play a role in the pathomechanics of medial tibial stress syndrome. The tenting effect of the posterior tibial, flexor digitorum longus, and soleus tendons caused by muscle contraction exerts a force on the distal tibial fascia that is directed to its tibial crest insertion. Circumferential straps provided no dampening effect on tension directed to the medial tibial crest. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 31–36, 2007)
Background: A study was conducted to determine whether the longitudinal arch angle can be used to predict dynamic foot posture during running.
Methods: Seventeen healthy, experienced runners participated in the study. The static longitudinal arch angle was determined from a digital image of the medial aspect of each subject’s feet obtained in relaxed standing posture. For the dynamic phase, subjects were asked to walk across a 12-m walkway and then to run across a 25-m runway while the medial aspect of each foot was videotaped. The longitudinal arch angle was digitized from the video images at midstance in walking and at midsupport while running for five trials per extremity.
Results: The longitudinal arch angle obtained in relaxed standing posture was highly predictive of dynamic foot posture at midstance in walking (r2 = 0.854) and at midsupport while running (r2 = 0.846).
Conclusions: The static measurement of longitudinal arch angle is highly predictive of dynamic foot posture during walking and running. The longitudinal arch angle measured in relaxed standing posture significantly contributed to explaining more than 85% of the variance associated with the longitudinal arch angle position at midstance during walking and at midsupport while running. These results seem to validate use of the longitudinal arch angle as part of the foot and ankle physical examination. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 102–107, 2007)