There are many theoretical models that attempt to accurately and consistently link kinematic and kinetic information to musculoskeletal pain and deformity of the foot. Biomechanical theory of the foot lacks a consensual model: clinicians are enticed to draw from numerous paradigms, each having different levels of supportive evidence and contrasting methods of evaluation, in order to engage in clinical deduction and treatment planning. Contriving to find a link between form and function lies at the heart of most of these competing theories and the physical nature of the discipline has prompted an engineering approach. Physics is of great importance in biology and helps us to model the forces that the foot has to deal with in order for it to work effectively. However, the tissues of the body have complex processes that are in place to protect them and they are variable between individuals. Research is uncovering why these differences exist and how these processes are governed. The emerging explanations for adaptability of foot structure and musculoskeletal homeostasis offer new insights into how clinical variation in outcomes and treatment effects might arise. These biological processes underlie how variation in the performance and use of common traits, even within apparently similar subgroups, make anatomical distinction less meaningful and are likely to undermine the justification of a “foot type.” Furthermore, mechanobiology introduces a probabilistic element to morphology based on genetic and epigenetic factors.
This randomized, prospective, multicenter, open-label study was designed to test whether a topical, electrolyzed, superoxidized solution (Microcyn Rx) is a safe and effective treatment for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Sixty-seven patients with ulcers were randomized into three groups. Patients with wounds irrigated with Microcyn Rx alone were compared with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus normal saline wound irrigation and with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus Microcyn Rx wound irrigation. Patients were evaluated on day 3, at the end of treatment on day 10 (visit 3), and 14 days after completion of therapy for test of cure (visit 4).
In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline–treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx–treated patients.
Microcyn Rx is safe and at least as effective as oral levofloxacin for mild diabetic foot infections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 484–496, 2011)
The skin on human feet presents unique environments for the proliferation of potentially pathogenic commensals. This study examined microflora changes on healthy intact skin under a semiocclusive dressing on the medial longitudinal arch of the foot to determine changes in growth, distribution, and frequency of microflora under the dressing.
Nine human participants wore a low-adherent, absorbent, semiocclusive dressing on the medial longitudinal arch of the left foot for 2 weeks. An identical location on the right foot was swabbed and used as a control. Each foot was swabbed at baseline, week 1, and week 2. The swabs were cultured for 48 hours. Visual identification, Gram staining, DNase test agar, and a latex slide agglutination test were used to identify genera and species.
Microflora growth was categorized as scant (0–10 colony-forming units [CFU]), light (11–50 CFU), moderate (51–100 CFU), or heavy (>100 CFU). Scant and light growth decreased and moderate and heavy growth increased under the dressing compared with the control. Seven different genera of bacteria were identified. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp appeared most frequently, followed by Corynebacterium spp.
Changes in microflora distribution, frequency, and growth were found under the dressing, supporting historical studies. Microflora changes were identified as an increase in bioburden and reduction in diversity. The application of similar methods, using more sophisticated identification and analysis techniques and a variety of dressings, could lead to a better understanding of bacterial and fungal growth under dressings, informing better dressing selection to assist the healing process of wounds and prevent infection.
The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(5): 437–446, 2011)
Recognizing the existence of adverse drug effects of frequently prescribed drugs can empower a clinician with knowledge to avoid dangerous adverse effects that may result in hazardous, negative patient outcomes on either fracture healing or bone health. Pharmacovigilance reports have described the influence of medications, allowing for bone health to be quite unpredictable.
First, mechanisms found in the medical literature of potential drug adverse effects regarding fracture healing are presented. Second, the 100 most frequently prescribed medications in 2010 are reviewed regarding adverse effects on fracture healing. These reported adverse effects are evaluated for medical causation. Last, a data table describing the 100 reviewed medications and their reported effects on fracture healing is provided.
The actual number of different medications in the review was 72. Reported drug adverse effects on bone and fracture healing occurred with 59 of the 72 drugs (81.9%). These adverse effects are either described as a definitive statement or represented by postmarketing case reports. Thirteen of the 72 review drugs (18.1%) did not have any description of the possible effects on bone health. A total of 301 cases reports describing delayed union, malunion, and nonunion of fractures represent 31 of the 72 medications reviewed (43.1%).
This review offers the health-care provider information regarding potential adverse drug effects on bone health. Empowered with this information, clinicians may assist their patients in maximizing pharmacologic outcomes by avoiding these reported harmful adverse effects.
This study attempted to determine the cost-effectiveness of therapies for dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis in the United States in 2001. The antimycotic agents evaluated were ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer and the oral agents terbinafine, itraconazole (pulse), itraconazole (continuous), fluconazole, and griseofulvin. A treatment algorithm for the management of onychomycosis was developed, and a meta-analysis was carried out to determine the average mycologic and clinical response rates for the various agents. The cost of the regimen was figured as the sum of the costs of drug acquisition, medical management, and management of adverse effects. The expected cost of management and disease-free days were determined, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. It was concluded that ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, which has recently become available in the larger size of 6.6 mL, is a cost-effective agent for the management of toenail onychomycosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(5): 272-286, 2002)
Traditional methods of diagnosing onychomycosis, such as microscopy, histologic staining, and cultures, may not provide the clinician with documentation before initiating antifungal drug therapy. DNA technology now supplies the tools for increased sensitivity, speed, and accuracy in the diagnostic arena by allowing for the amplification, qualification, and quantitation of DNA. These techniques, already being used to identify many infectious agents, may soon be commonly applied to onychomycosis. This report reviews some of the DNA-based techniques that are currently being used to identify dermatophytes and their possible diagnostic use. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 134–144, 2007)
Podiatric physicians care for a wide spectrum of patients with neurologic illness. Often, patients with neurologic disease present to their podiatric physician with unrelated complaints that can be easily separated from their underlying neurologic condition. However, some neurologic conditions predictably lead to podiatric disease and, as such, are best treated in the context of the broader disease process. Neuropathies, spastic disorders, and cerebral palsy are examples of common neurologic disorders that can be associated with substantial podiatric manifestations; therefore, it is important for podiatric physicians to be familiar with these conditions. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of the common neurologic disorders affecting the foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 104-117, 2004)
Twelve patients (15 feet) with severe hallux rigidus underwent distally based capsule-periosteum interpositional arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (mean ± SD follow-up, 16.8 ± 7.0 months). Subjective evaluation was based on a modified version of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society’s 100-point Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Joint Scale. Objective evaluation consisted of preoperative and postoperative physical examinations (first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion and axial grind testing) and radiographic evaluations (joint space width). The short-term results of this novel procedure showed subjective patient improvement and satisfaction, increased first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal range of motion, maintained hallux plantar range of motion and power, and improved joint space width on anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. None of the patients developed a hallux hammer toe or extensus deformity or lesser metatarsalgia, and none required further surgical intervention. After describing the indications of the procedure and the surgical technique, the authors compare the results with those of the various other procedures available for the surgical treatment of hallux rigidus. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(5): 349-366, 2003)