Tourniquet failure is attributed to inadequate tourniquet pressure, inadequate exsanguination, failure to compress medullary vessels within the bone, and incompressible calcified arteries. We herein report a case of massive bleeding using a properly functioning tourniquet in a patient who had bilateral calcified femoral arteries. When incompressible calcified arteries are present, the inflated tourniquet cuff fails to adequately compress the underlying artery, yet acts as an efficient venous tourniquet, which leads to an increase in bleeding. It is therefore critical to preoperatively confirm the effectiveness of the tourniquet in arterial occlusion in patients with severe arterial calcification.
Amputation has been most commonly considered the only option to achieve local tumor control for calcaneal malignancies. Advances in oncologic treatment modalities and wide resection have made limb salvage increasingly possible. We retrospectively reviewed nine patients with calcaneal malignancies treated with different surgical options.
The diagnoses included chondrosarcoma in three patients, Ewing's sarcoma in three, osteosarcoma in two, and small round cell sarcoma in one. Four patients were managed by below-the-knee amputation owing to neurovascular invasion. Five patients were managed by limb salvage procedures. Pedicled osteomyocutaneous fibular grafts were used to reconstruct the defects created after total calcanectomy in limb salvage procedures. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed, and functional outcomes were assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score.
The patients were followed up for a mean of 42.3 months. Wide resection margins were achieved in all of the patients with limb salvage surgery. At the final follow-up, two patients had died of disease. Lung metastasis was found in two patients who were alive with disease. Five patients had no evidence of disease. No local recurrence occurred in this series. All of the fibular flaps survived, and fibula hypertrophies were observed in three patients. Average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores were 74.6% and 83.2% in patients with amputation and limb salvage, respectively.
After wide resection of a calcaneal malignancy, biological reconstruction using pedicled osteocutaneous fibular flaps has proved to be a successful limb salvage procedure, offering a satisfactory oncologic and functional outcome alternative to amputation in selected patients.
Acquired acro-osteolysis (AOL) is defined as the resorption of bone from the tufts or shafts of the terminal phalanges. Acquired acro-osteolysis can manifest as a primary osteolysis syndrome and also appears in a number of disease states including rheumatologic disorders, neuropathic diseases, the result of prolonged exposure to polyvinyl chloride, and in rare cases, as a response to repeated mechanical stress. In this report, a 46-year-old surfer was evaluated for AOL as a complication of sports-related repetitive trauma to the right second and third toes. Radiography showed the bony tips of his right second and third toes had been eroded away. Acquired acro-osteolysis in the surfer’s toes resulted from increased blood flow initiated to repair microdamage caused by repeated trauma to the distal ends of his second and third right toes due to the habitual dragging of the affected toes across a surfboard. The always initial lytic phase of bone repair was magnified by the increased arterial input to warm the extremities after prolonged exposure to cold. At 6-years’ follow-up, the use of a protective bandage while surfing has permitted full regeneration of the affected toes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 165–168, 2012)
Emergency department visits for lower extremity complications of diabetes are extremely common throughout the world. Surprisingly, recent data suggest that such visits generate an 81.2% hospital admission rate with an annual bill of at least $1.2 billion in the United States alone. The likelihood of amputation and other subsequent adverse outcomes is strongly associated with three factors: 1) wound severity (degree of tissue loss), 2) ischemia, and 3) foot infection. Using these factors, this article outlines the basic principles needed to create an evidence-based, rapid foot assessment for diabetic foot ulcers presenting to the emergency department, and suggests the establishment of a “hot foot line” for an organized, expeditious response from limb salvage team members. We present a nearly immediate assessment and referral system for patients with atraumatic tissue loss below the knee that has the potential to vastly expedite lower extremity triage in the emergency room setting through greater collaboration and organization.
Validation of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist
A Population Screening Tool for Identifying Foot Ulcer Risk in People with Diabetes Mellitus
Background: We sought to evaluate the validity, reliability, and predictive value of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist.
Methods: Five hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance were screened by a generalist foot screener and a specialist podiatric physician to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist. One hundred twelve of the 500 participants had their feet screened by two foot screeners to determine reliability.
Results: The sensitivity of the screening tool was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.58), and the specificity was 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.81), with a positive predictive value of 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.85). Overall, the reliability of the tool was poor (κ = 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.53).
Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist was poor despite the finding that generalist foot screeners performed individual tests with good sensitivity and specificity. This inconsistency was likely attributable to the inability of screeners to adequately interpret the test findings and form accurate risk classification outcomes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 339–347, 2009)
Patients with diabetic neuropathy are subject to ulcerations that may be complicated by infection and gangrene, with subsequent risk of amputation. It is the job of the foot specialist to identify and manage these problems early to avoid the unfortunate complication of amputation regardless of the presenting condition of the patient’s limb. We shed light on the hypothesis that suggests that infection and gangrene in a diabetic patient aggravate the degree of ischemia (microvascular, macrovascular, or both) already present enough to endanger the viability of the surrounding tissues unless urgent drainage with decompression and debridement of the necrotic sloughs is performed, with consequent reduction of tissue pressure and improvement in circulation to the area. We present cases with severe infections leading to gangrene and ischemia, which were improved following surgical management with consequent improvement in tissue viability. In these cases, we demonstrate that immediate treatment of the wound despite the delayed presentation of the patients resulted in limb salvage with much less soft-tissue loss than expected before treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(5): 454–458, 2009)
Despite advancements in the treatment of diabetic patients with “at-risk” limbs, minor and major amputations remain commonplace. The diabetic population is especially prone to surgical complications from lower extremity amputation because of comorbidities such as renal disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, microvascular and macrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Complication occurrence may result in increases in hospital stay duration, unplanned readmission rate, mortality rate, number of operations, and incidence of infection. Skin flap necrosis and wound healing delay secondary to inadequate perfusion of soft tissues continues to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and cost to individuals and the health-care system. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the assessment of tissue perfusion may be used to assess tissue perfusion in this patient population to minimize complications associated with amputations. This technology provides real-time functional assessment of the macrovascular and microvascular systems in addition to arterial and venous flow to and from the flap soft tissues. This case study explores the use of indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the treatment of a diabetic patient with a large dorsal and plantar soft-tissue deficit and need for transmetatarsal amputation with nontraditional rotational flap coverage. The authors theorize that the use of indocyanine green may decrease postoperative complications and cost to the health-care system through fewer readmissions and fewer procedures.
A case describing an O-to-Z double-advancement flap used to treat a 62-year-old woman with a slowly enlarging exophytic mass in the plantar aspect of the right foot is presented. Clinical details, surgical technique, and histologic photographs are described. This case report highlights the rare exophytic presentation of a pedal angioleiomyoma, which has not been described in the literature before.