This study compares the potential benefit of fifth metatarsal head resection versus standard conservative treatment of plantar ulcerations in people with diabetes mellitus. Using a retrospective cohort model, we abstracted data from 40 patients (22 cases and 18 controls) treated for uninfected, nonischemic diabetic foot wounds beneath the fifth metatarsal head. There were no significant differences in sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, or degree of glucose control between cases and controls. Patients who underwent a fifth metatarsal head resection healed significantly faster (mean ± SD, 5.8 ± 2.9 versus 8.7 ± 4.3 weeks). Patients were much less likely to reulcerate during the period of evaluation in the surgical group (4.5% versus 27.8%). The results of this study suggest that fifth metatarsal head resection is a potentially effective treatment in patients at high risk of ulceration and reulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 353–356, 2005)
Background: We assessed the tolerability and efficacy of autologous skin cell grafts in older type 2 diabetic patients with chronic foot ulcers.
Methods: Treatment with Hyalograft 3D and Laserskin Autograft was proposed to a consecutive series of type 2 diabetic patients older than 65 years affected by long-standing (>6 months) foot ulcers with an area greater than 15 cm2. Ulcer healing rates and measurements of ulcer area were determined monthly for 12 months.
Results: Seven patients with 12 ulcers, nine of which received the described treatment, were enrolled. During 12-month follow-up, all of the ulcers healed except one. In the remaining eight ulcers, the median healing time was 21 weeks (interquartile range, 4–29 weeks).
Conclusions: Autologous skin cell grafts are feasible, well tolerated, and apparently effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers of the lower limbs in advanced age. Age did not seem to moderate healing times. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 55–58, 2011)
Poorly fitting footwear has frequently been cited as an etiologic factor in the pathway to diabetic foot ulceration. However, we are unaware of any reports in the medical literature specifically measuring shoe size versus foot size in this high-risk population. We assessed the prevalence of poorly fitting footwear in individuals with and without diabetic foot ulceration. We evaluated the shoe size of 440 consecutive patients (94.1% male; mean ± SD age, 67.2 ± 12.5 years) presenting to an interdisciplinary teaching clinic. Of this population, 58.4% were diagnosed as having diabetes, and 6.8% had active diabetic foot ulceration. Only 25.5% of the patients were wearing appropriately sized shoes. Individuals with diabetic foot ulceration were 5.1 times more likely to have poorly fitting shoes than those without a wound (93.3% versus 73.2%; odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–21.9; P = .02). This association was also evident when assessing only the 32.3% of the total population with diabetes and loss of protective sensation (93.3% versus 75.0%; OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.1–20.9; P = .04). Poorly fitting shoes seem to be more prevalent in people with diabetic foot wounds than in those without wounds with or without peripheral neuropathy. This implies that appropriate meticulous screening for shoe-foot mismatches may be useful in reducing the risk of lower-extremity ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 290–292, 2006)
We compared postoperative outcomes in adolescent patients who did and did not undergo plate-screw fixation of at least one of the lateral, medial, or posterior malleoli in ankle fractures. It was hypothesized that using plate-screw fixation would not negatively affect postoperative outcomes.
All of the preoperative data and postoperative outcomes for 56 patients with ankle fractures aged 12 to 15 years who underwent surgical treatment between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were grouped into plate-screw fixation (n = 15) and non–plate-screw fixation (n = 41) groups and as high- and low-energy trauma patients.
There were no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between the plate-screw fixation and non–plate-screw fixation groups. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score of high-energy trauma patients was significantly lower than that of low-energy trauma patients (P < .001), and the rate of degenerative change in high-energy trauma patients was significantly higher than that in low-energy trauma patients (P = .008). There were no significant differences between high- and low-energy trauma patients with respect to other postoperative outcomes.
If anatomical reduction is performed without damaging the growth plate, postoperative clinical outcomes may be near perfect regardless of screw-plate fixation use. Postoperative outcomes of adolescent ankle fracture after high-energy trauma, independent of Salter-Harris classification and surgical treatment methods, were negative.
Scarf Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Deformity
A Prospective Study with 8 Years of Clinical and Radiologic Follow-up
Background: Scarf midshaft metatarsal osteotomy has become increasingly popular as a treatment option for moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformities because of its great versatility. Numerous studies on Scarf osteotomy have been published. However, no prospective studies were available until 2002. Since then, only short-term follow-up prospective studies have been published. We present the results of a prospective study of 21 patients treated by Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus with follow-up of 8 years.
Methods: Between August 1, 1999, and October 31, 1999, 23 patients (23 feet) with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformity were included. Clinical (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score) and radiologic (hallux valgus angle, first intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid position) evaluations were performed preoperatively and 1 and 8 years postoperatively.
Results: Clinical evaluation showed a significant improvement in the mean forefoot score from 47 to 83 (of a possible 100) at 1 year (P < .001). Radiographic evaluation showed significant improvement in the hallux valgus angle (mean improvement, 19°; P < .001) and in the intermetatarsal angle (mean improvement, 6°; P < .001). These clinical and radiographic results were maintained at the final evaluation 8 years postoperatively.
Conclusions: Scarf osteotomy tends to provide predictable and sustainable correction of moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformities. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 35–40, 2010)
It is well known that interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays a key role in the inflammatory process. However, there are limited data on the role IL-18 plays with diabetic foot ulcers, an acute and complex inflammatory situation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate serum IL-18 levels of diabetic patients with foot ulcers.
Twenty diabetic patients with acute foot ulcers, 21 diabetic patients without a history of foot ulcers, and 21 healthy volunteers were enrolled in our study. Circulating levels of IL-18, and other biochemical markers are parameters of inflammation and were measured in all three groups.
Diabetic patients both with and without foot ulcers had high IL-18 concentrations (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020, respectively) when compared with the nondiabetic volunteers. Those with foot ulcers had higher levels of IL-18 level (P < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P = 0.001), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P < 0.001) than those without foot ulcers.
We found that serum IL-18 concentrations were elevated in diabetic patients with acute diabetic foot ulcers. However, these findings do not indicate whether the IL-18 elevation is a cause or a result of the diabetic foot ulceration. Further studies are needed to show the role of IL-18 in the course of these ulcers.
Lateral malleolar fractures (Weber type B or OTA 44-B) account for 60% of all ankle fractures. To achieve anatomic restoration, surgical stabilization provides better results than conservative treatment. Various fixation methods are available to treat these fractures; however, the best method is still unknown. Our objectives were to present a new, useful, and efficient surgical technique for stabilizing lateral malleolar fractures and to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with the compression cerclage system.
The surgical technique consists of a Kirschner wire that is passed percutaneously and perpendicular to the fracture line, and a cerclage wire that is passed in a semi-circular fashion over the ends of the Kirschner wire on the lateral side of the bone, leaving loops on each side to allow bilateral compression while twisting both wires. We retrospectively evaluated patients treated with this technique, with or without additional fractures. Follow-up of <24 months and bilateral ankle fractures were the exclusion criteria. Fractures were examined clinically and radiologically in comparison to the uninjured side and were rated according to the criteria reported by McLennon and Ungersma. Olerud and Molander ankle score was used to evaluate functional outcome.
At the final follow-up, 15 out of 21 patients (9 women and 6 men; mean age, 48.2 years [range, 19–78 years]) were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 5.16 years (28–129 months). Five patients had an isolated lateral malleolar fracture; eight had lateral and medial malleolar fractures; and two had trimalleolar fractures. At the final follow-up, 11 patients were rated good functionally and four were fair, and all patients were rated good radiographically according to the criteria by McLennon and Ungersma. Mean Olerud and Molander ankle score was 93.3 (range, 80–100).
The compression cerclage system provides good functional and radiological outcomes in patients with lateral malleolus fractures. This method is useful, safe, and efficient with minimum hardware. It can be applied through limited soft-tissue stripping, which is especially important in patients with a high risk for wound complications.
Biochemical properties of the amniotic membrane help modulate inflammation and enhance soft-tissue healing. In controlled trials, the efficacy of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts has been established. Our purpose is to describe our experience with using dHACM to treat nonhealing wounds of various etiologies.
We conducted a retrospective review of deidentified data from 117 consecutive patients treated in an outpatient clinic with dHACM allografts with wounds of various etiologies over 2 years. The decision to use advanced wound-care treatments is based on rate of healing observed after initiation of standard wound care and patient risk factors. Eligibility for treatments such as amniotic membrane allografts includes wounds without 50% reduction after 4 weeks, or earlier in patients deemed to be at high risk for nonhealing or with a history of chronic wounds. In micronized or sheet formulation, dHACM is applied to the wound weekly after sharp/mechanical debridement as necessary, and wound-care practices appropriate for wound type and location are continued.
Thirty-four percent of allograft recipients had diabetic foot ulcers, 25% had venous leg ulcers, 20% had surgical wounds, 14% had pressure ulcers, 6% had ischemic wounds, and 2% had traumatic wounds. Complete healing occurred in 91.1% of treated patients, with a mean ± SD number of weekly applications per healed wound of 5.1 ± 4.2.
In addition to wounds of diabetic origin, dHACM can significantly expedite healing in refractory wounds of varying etiologies.
Vascular anomalies (birthmarks) commonly involve the feet and ankles. Little is known about these anomalies among practicing physicians. In this article, vascular anomalies are described, and detailed information is presented regarding appropriate diagnostic work-up and treatment strategies. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(5): 477–482, 2004)
In a retrospective review of 233 cases of diabetic foot ulceration preceded by minor trauma, 192 ulcerations exhibited focal pressure keratosis as the preceding traumatic event. The frequency of outpatient visits and other foot care interventions were correlated with the occurrence and severity of ulceration. Patients seen more frequently in an outpatient foot clinic had less severe ulcers and were less likely to undergo surgical treatment than those with less frequent visits. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(6): 275-279, 2001)