A review of the literature reveals sparse references regarding the application of burs in the conservative treatment of soft tissues and nails. The most recent publications were in 1946. The authors present an update on the technology and practical application of burs in podiatric medicine, their metallurgy, types, and recommended bur selection for reduction, remodeling, and burnishing of hyperkeratotic tissue and thickened nails.
The authors discuss the Interdisciplinary Team Training in Geriatrics program developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. At the James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, this program provides funding to podiatric residents, enabling them to work with practitioners from other health care disciplines as a team that addresses all of the varied health needs of the elderly patient.
Although tetanus is a preventable disease, several cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention each year. Many conditions treated by podiatric physicians carry the risk of infection by Clostridium tetani, and it is advisable for podiatrists to update a patient's tetanus immunization status if the patient presents with a tetanus-prone wound.
The author discusses the issue of scope of practice in podiatric sports medicine and cases involving this area of practice, as well as the attendant ramifications. By gaining insight into this tissue, it is hoped the importance of practicing within the specific state scope of practice laws will be recognized.
Precision in minimal-incision surgery allows surgeons to achieve accurate osteotomies and patients to avoid risks. Herein, a surgical guide for the foot is designed and validated in vitro using resin foot models for hallux abducto valgus surgery.
Three individuals with different experience levels (an undergraduate student, a master's student, and an experienced podiatric physician) performed an Akin osteotomy, a Reverdin osteotomy, and a basal osteotomy of the first metatarsal.
The average measurements of each osteotomy and the angle of the basal osteotomy do not reveal significant differences among the three surgeons. A shorter deviation from the planned measurements has been observed in variables corresponding to the Akin osteotomy (the maximum deviation in the measurement of the distance from the proximal medial end of the Akin osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline was 1.67 mm, and the maximum deviation from the proximal lateral end of the Akin osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline was 1.00 mm). As for the Reverdin osteotomies, the maximum deviations in the measurement of the distance from the proximal medial end of the osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline were 3.60 and 3.53 mm in the expert and undergraduate surgeons, respectively. All of the osteotomies were precise among the groups, reducing the learning curve to the maximum.
The three-dimensional–printed prototype has been proven effective in guiding surgeons to perform different types of osteotomies. Minimal deviations from the predefined osteotomies were found among the three surgeons.
Background: More than half of opioid misusers last obtained opioids from a friend or relative, a problematic reflection of the commonly known opioid reservoir maintained by variable prescription rates and, notably, excessive postoperative prescription. We examined the postoperative opioid-prescribing approaches among podiatric physicians.
Methods: We administered a scenario-based, anonymous, online questionnaire via an online survey platform. The questionnaire consisted of five patient–foot surgery scenarios aimed at discerning opioid-prescribing approaches. Respondents were asked how many opioid “pills” (dosage units) that they would prescribe at the time of surgery. We divided respondents into two opioid-prescribing approach groups: one-size-fits-all (prescribed the same dosage units regardless of the scenario) and patient-centric and procedure-focused (prescribed varied amounts of opioid dosage units based on the patient’s opioid history and the procedure provided in each scenario). We used the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the difference between the opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery by the two groups.
Results: Approximately half of the respondents used a one-size-fits-all postoperative opioid-prescribing approach. Podiatric physicians who used a patient-centric and procedure-focused approach reported prescribing significantly fewer opioid dosage units in scenarios 1 (partial toe amputation; –9.1; P = .0087) and 2 (incision and drainage with partial fifth-ray resection; –12.3; P = .0024), which represented minor procedures with opioid-naive patients.
Conclusions: Podiatric physicians who used a one-size-fits-all opioid-prescribing approach prescribed more postoperative opioid dosage units regardless of the scenario. Given that the patient population requiring foot surgery is diverse and may have multiple comorbidities, the management of postoperative pain, likewise, should be diverse and nuanced. The patient-centric and procedure-focused approach is suited to limit excess prescribing while defending the physician-patient relationship.
Background: We used a model of lower-extremity ulceration to determine the impact of a podiatric lead limb preservation team on identified relationships among risk factors, predictors of ulceration, amputation, and clinical outcomes of lower-extremity disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A total of 485 patients with diabetes mellitus were randomly selected from the diabetic population and included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients were then stratified into two groups: those who received specialty podiatric medical care and those who did not. Data covering a 5-year period were collected using electronic medical records and chart abstraction to capture detailed treatment characteristics, ulcer status, and surgical outcomes.
Results: Overall, the frequencies of inpatient and outpatient encounters and the durations of hospital stays were significantly greater with increasing wound depth and in the presence of infection. In addition, the overall ulcer incidence was greater in patients with callus (34.3% versus 10.3%, P < .0001) with and without neuropathy (20.4% and 4.1%, P < .0001). Among patients treated in a specialty multidiscipline podiatric medical setting, the proportion of all amputations that were “minor” was significantly increased (33.7% versus 67.3%, P = .0006), and survival was significantly improved (19.5% versus 7.7%, P < .0001).
Conclusions: Early identification of individuals at increased risk for lower-extremity ulceration and subsequent referral for advanced multidiscipline podiatric medical specialty care may decrease rates of ulceration and proximal amputation and improve survival in patients with diabetes mellitus who are at high risk for ulceration and limb loss. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 235–241, 2010)
The opioid epidemic has hit disastrous levels across the United States. Many attempts have been made to counteract this, including policy changes and modification of provider and patient behavior. The purpose of this study was to understand the current state of podiatric residents' knowledge regarding pain management and addiction.
This study used mixed quantitative-qualitative methods. Two focus groups were conducted with two podiatric residency programs to understand current issues and inform the creation of a survey. A 30-question survey was created and peer reviewed to assess general pain management knowledge, levels of confidence in pain management and addiction, and areas for improvement.
Pain management education in podiatry is mainly focused on opioids. These concepts are often taught in a nonstandardized method, which does not often include nonopioid alternatives. Knowledge of risk factors for addiction was lacking, whereas knowledge of behaviors concerning for addiction was more bountiful. Thirty-three surveys were completed of a possible 39. A knowledge score was created from eight survey questions for a total of 10 points, with an average score of 4.61. There was no statistical difference between those with and without a pain management rotation. Nearly all residents felt comfortable managing surgical pain. The residents are “never” or “only occasionally” inquiring about risk factors for addiction. Questions asked also suggest that the residents are not thinking about their role within the opioid epidemic.
As the opioid epidemic grows, it is imperative to examine the causes and solutions to the problem. Focusing efforts on educating resident physicians is one method to address the issue. The results of this study show that pain management basics need to be reinforced and more time must be spent emphasizing the importance of thorough patient histories and educating patients when prescribing pain medication.
Background: Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education.
Methods: Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical.
Results: No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data.
Conclusions: Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.
Background: Integrated medical curricula commonly require the review of foundational science concepts in the context of clinical applications. A detailed analysis of the Des Moines University second-year medical curricula revealed that such reviews, conducted as hours-long basic science lectures in second-year clinical systems courses, often create undesirable redundancy and can load the curriculum with excessively detailed content. We hypothesized that short, quiz-enhanced videocasts (QEVs) would allow a more focused and efficient review of foundational sciences than traditional lectures.
Methods: Five biochemistry lectures in the second year Des Moines University Doctor of Podiatric Medicine curriculum were reviewed for relevance and redundancy, shortened to 8- to 12-min QEVs and offered to students as an alternative to the respective hours-long lecture.
Results: Download data show that students chose content delivery by QEV as frequently as delivery of lectures, with QEV use peaking in the days immediately preceding the exam. Survey comments show that students appreciate the efficiency and flexibility of content delivery by QEV, particularly for focused exam preparation.
Conclusions: We conclude that the review of foundational concepts by means of short, interactive videocasts can reduce redundant and excessively detailed content from integrated curricula. Although the faculty effort for context review, content selection, and videocast production is higher than for the design of a traditional lecture, the end product offers students a much-appreciated opportunity for efficient, focused, and individualized learning.