Drug-based treatment of superficial fungal infections, such as onychomycosis, is not the only defense. Sanitization of footwear such as shoes, socks/stockings, and other textiles is integral to the prevention of recurrence and reduction of spread for superficial fungal mycoses. The goal of this review was to examine the available methods of sanitization for footwear and textiles against superficial fungal infections. A systematic literature search of various sanitization devices and methods that could be applied to footwear and textiles using PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE was performed. Fifty-four studies were found relevant to the different methodologies, devices, and techniques of sanitization as they pertain to superficial fungal infections of the feet. These included topics of basic sanitization, antifungal and antimicrobial materials, sanitization chemicals and powder, laundering, ultraviolet, ozone, nonthermal plasma, microwave radiation, essential oils, and natural plant extracts. In the management of onychomycosis, it is necessary to think beyond treatment of the nail, as infections enter through the skin. Those prone to onychomycosis should examine their environment, including surfaces, shoes, and socks, and ensure that proper sanitization is implemented.
We present a case of a pediatric patient with a history of spina bifida who presented to the emergency department of a large Army medical treatment facility with a partially amputated right fifth digit she sustained while sleeping with the family canine. There are several reports in the popular press that suggest that an animal, particularly a dog, can detect human infection, and it is hypothesized that the toe chewing was triggered by a wound infection. This case provides an opportunity to provide further education in caring for foot wounds in patients with spina bifida.
Fish pedicure is considered to be an aesthetic treatment, first conceived in Turkey, in Kangal Hot Springs. These hot waters are rich in two species of fish of the Cyprinidae family that feed on the stratum corneum layer of patients with psoriasis. This treatment was later adapted to many spa resorts for “fish pedicure.” In this article, we performed a review of the skin infections already reported, explaining why this procedure, performed usually during summer holidays by tourists, is not risk free and should be discouraged by health workers.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has traditionally been considered a common pathogen in diabetic foot infection (DFI), yet the 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline for DFI states that “empiric therapy directed at P aeruginosa is usually unnecessary.” The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of P aeruginosa isolated from bone or tissue cultures from patients with DFI.
This study is a cross-sectional survey of diabetic patients presenting with a foot infection to an urban county hospital between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. All of the patients had at least one debridement procedure during which tissue or bone cultures from operative or bedside debridements were obtained. The χ2 test and the t test of means were used to determine relationships between variables and the frequency of P aeruginosa in culture.
The median number of bacteria isolated from DFI was two. Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated organisms; P aeruginosa was isolated in only five of 112 patients (4.5%). The presence of P aeruginosa was not associated with the patient's age, glycosylated hemoglobin level, tobacco abuse, the presence of osteomyelitis, a prescription for antibiotic drugs in the preceding 3 months, or the type of operative procedure.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was an infrequent isolate from DFI in this urban, underserved diabetic population. The presence of P aeruginosa was not associated with any measured risk factors. By introducing a clinical practice guideline, we hope to discourage frontline providers from using routine antipseudomonal antibiotic drugs for DFI.
Polyarteritis nodosa is a progressive, often life-threatening, vasculitis affecting multiple organs, including the skin and peripheral nerves. We report a patient presenting with systemic features of the disease and with characteristic lesions in the feet 3 weeks after vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection.
Plantar thrombophlebitis is a rare abnormality with few cases reported in the literature. Coexistence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection increases its relevance. The disease is generally classified as idiopathic, and it is suggested that it is attributed to conditions that lead to hypercoagulability. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with thrombosis of the lateral plantar veins and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease of 2019. The plantar vein thrombosis diagnosis was made by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was suspected per clinical information and confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Treatment was successful using rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
Fever is an active yet nonspecific response of the body to infections and other insults that cause immune cells to release cytokines, resulting in a brain prostanoid–mediated rise in body temperature. The causes, types, clinical management, and postoperative consequences of fever are reviewed in this article. Physicians use fever as a clinical sign for diagnoses and prognoses, but “fevers of unknown origin” continue to be problematic. Fevers that arise 1 or 2 days after surgery are usually due to stress and trauma, but later postoperative fevers often have more serious causes and consequences, such as wound infection. Fever is commonly encountered by podiatric physicians and surgeons, and certain procedures with the lower extremity are more likely to eventuate in fever. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 281–290, 2010)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an uncommon gram-negative bacterium often found in individuals with long-standing broad-spectrum antibiotic use or catheter use; individuals undergoing hemodialysis; and individuals with prolonged respiratory disease, specifically, cystic fibrosis. To our knowledge, there are few reported cases of S maltophilia being the causative pathogen of infection in a diabetic foot wound.
Following multiple surgical procedures and deep tissue cultures, S maltophilia was determined to be a secondary opportunistic colonizer of the wound, necessitating a change in antibiotic therapy.
The cultured pathogen was sensitive to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The treatment team chose to use ceftazidime, as it also provided antibiotic coverage for the initial wound and blood cultures. Change in antibiotic therapy was initiated following multiple surgical procedures and angioplasty of the lower limb. The patient was discharged with a peripheral intravenous central catheter for outpatient antibiotic therapy.
Prolonged exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics in individuals with multiple comorbidities including diabetes mellitus provides an advantageous environment for growth of uncommon multidrug-resistant organisms. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia may complicate the treatment of diabetic foot infections as an opportunistic pathogen. Understanding the implication of long-term broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment in the diabetic patient is important in managing postoperative complications and determining the correct course of treatment. The emergence of atypical pathogens in diabetic wounds must be managed appropriately.
Background: Onychomycosis, or fungal nail infection, is the cause of 50% of onychopathies seen by podiatric physicians. This pathology is accompanied by a negative psychosocial component because of its effect on self-image, which is an essential part of social relations. Conventional pharmacologic treatment based on antifungal agents is lengthy and expensive and has a high abandonment rate and a low cure rate. Therefore, a faster and more efficient solution has been sought using laser treatment. However, studies on the efficacy of this physical method are not conclusive due to the lack of uniformity in the method used to apply the laser and an objective method to measure the results. The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of laser treatment of onychomycosis by microbiological cure and clinical evolution using the Onychomycosis Severity Index.
Methods: A prospective study with a strictly repetitive protocol of Nd:YAG 1,064-nm laser was applied to 50 participants with onychomycosis in the first toe, following the manufacturer's instructions. The efficacy of the treatment on fungal infection was measured by microbiological culture before and after treatment. The clinical evolution of the nail dystrophy was quantitatively evaluated using the Onychomycosis Severity Index.
Results: The efficacy of Nd:YAG 1,064-nm laser in eliminating fungal infection was 30% (15 participants). However, significant improvement in nail appearance (dystrophy) was observed in 100% of patients (P < .001).
Conclusions: Laser treatment has relatively low efficacy in treating fungal infection but results in an objective improvement in the clinical appearance of the nail in 100% of patients.
Several nonbiodegradable and biodegradable antibiotic cement delivery systems are available for the delivery of antibiotics for adjunctive therapy in the management of osteomyelitis. A major nonbiodegradable delivery system is polymethylmethacrylate beads. Antibiotics that can be incorporated into this delivery system are limited to the heat-stable antibiotics vancomycin and aminoglycosides, tobramycin being the most popular. Calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (Cerament Bone Void Filler) is a unique biocompatible and biodegradable ceramic bone void filler that can successfully deliver heat-stable and heat-unstable antibiotics in musculoskeletal infections. The use of Cerament as antibiotic beads has not been previously reported. An off-label case of diabetic foot osteomyelitis successfully managed with surgical bone resection and vancomycin Cerament antibiotic beads is presented. Subsequent surgery for the bone infection and staged removal of the antibiotic beads was not necessary. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(3): 259–264, 2011)