Behcet's disease is a rare autoimmune systemic vasculitis. It usually presents with a symptom complex involving primarily mucocutaneous lesions, genital lesions, and uveitis. When it involves the lower extremity, venous and arterial disease predominates, and joint involvement occurs in approximately 50% of patients. We present a patient with Behcet's disease who was initially referred to us for chronic toenail pathology.
We report a pseudoaneurysm of the medial plantar artery that developed after percutaneous pinning for a Lisfranc fracture-dislocation in a 68-year-old male. Postembolization ultrasound and arteriography demonstrated successful ablation of the pseudoaneurysm following intra-arterial thrombin injection. Postoperative pulse volume recording and photoplethysmograph of the digits revealed excellent perfusion following ablation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 58–60, 2009)
Acral lentiginous melanoma is commonly misdiagnosed, and when detected late it portends a poor prognosis. Acral lentiginous melanoma can be mistaken for verruca, pyogenic granuloma, poroma, an ulcer, or other benign skin conditions. Patients with acral skin growths often present initially to a podiatric physician or their primary care physician. It is at this point when the growth is triaged as benign or potentially malignant. Dermoscopy aids in this decision making. Historically, dermoscopy training has been geared toward dermatologists, but there is increasing recognition of the need for dermoscopy training in primary care and podiatric medicine. Dermoscopy is particularly helpful in pink (amelanotic) growths, which can lack the traditional clinical findings of melanoma. A literature review of acral melanoma and dermoscopy was performed in PubMed. We also describe a case of amelanotic acral melanoma in a 58-year-old with a rapidly enlarging painful mass on her heel. The lesion was initially thought to be a pyogenic granuloma and was treated with debridement (curettage). She was ultimately seen in the dermatology clinic, and the findings under dermoscopy were worrisome for amelanotic melanoma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The cancer metastasized, and the patient died less than 2 years later.
Nonunion of an isolated undisplaced cuboid fracture is unusual. We report a case of symptomatic nonunion of an isolated cuboid fracture after nonoperative treatment. Fracture union was achieved with surgery, and the patient returned to full activities. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 233–235, 2013)
Foot and ankle health among the homeless is an important public health concern. There are limited studies done thus far on foot and ankle conditions and the podiatric medical needs of homeless populations. A literature review was undertaken to evaluate any studies published about the lower-extremity health needs among the homeless.
We did a literature search through PubMed, the US National Library of Medicine’s database of biomedical citations and abstracts for relevant publications from 1988 through 2008. We also searched the references cited in the articles found for any studies relevant to podiatric needs for homeless populations.
We found three relevant articles that addressed the needs of podiatric care for the homeless. The articles highlighted the community health importance of foot care for homeless populations, especially in helping prevent potentially limb-threatening pathologies.
The small number of studies published so far all emphasize the major public health need for podiatric care among homeless populations. More studies are needed to help address this important public health concern. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(1): 54–56, 2012)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder that affects several organs and systems in the human body. Digital gangrene is known to be a rare and severe complication of systemic lupus erythematosus that could lead to amputation. We report a case of an adolescent who presented with an autoimmune disorder and multiple comorbidities and developed gangrenous toes.
Split-thickness skin grafts can be used for foot wound closure in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. It is unknown whether this procedure is reliable for all diabetic patients, with or without comorbidities of diabetes, including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy.
We retrospectively reviewed 203 patients who underwent this procedure to determine significant differences in healing time, postoperative infection, and need for revisional surgery and to create a predictive model to identify diabetic patients who are likely to have a successful outcome.
Overall, compared with nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients experienced a significantly higher risk of delayed healing time and postoperative complication/infection and, hence, are more likely to require revisional surgery after undergoing the initial split-thickness skin graft procedure. These differences seemed to be related more to the presence of comorbidities than to diabetic status itself. Diabetic patients with preexisting comorbidities experienced a significantly increased risk of delayed healing time and postoperative infection and a higher need for revisional surgery compared with nondiabetic patients or diabetic patients without comorbidities. However, there were no significant differences in outcome between diabetic patients without comorbidities and nondiabetic patients.
For individuals with diabetes but without exclusionary comorbidities, split-thickness skin grafting may be considered an effective surgical alternative to other prolonged treatment options currently used in this patient population. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 223–232, 2013)
We evaluated whether direct or indirect endovascular revascularization based on the angiosome model affects outcomes in type 2 diabetes and critical limb ischemia.
From 2010 to 2015, 603 patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for critical limb ischemia and submitted to endovascular revascularization. Among these patients, 314 (52%) underwent direct and 123 (20%) indirect revascularization, depending on whether the flow to the artery directly feeding the site of ulceration, according to the angiosome model, was successfully acquired; 166 patients (28%) were judged unable to be revascularized. Outcomes were healing, major amputation, and mortality rates.
An overall healing rate of 62.5% was observed: patients who did not receive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty presented a healing rate of 58.4% (P < .02 versus revascularized patients). A higher healing rate was observed in the direct versus the indirect group (82.4% versus 50.4%; P < .001). The major amputation rate was significantly higher in the indirect versus the direct group (9.2% versus 3.2%; P < .05). The overall mortality rate was 21.6%, and it was higher in the indirect versus the direct group (24% versus 14%; P < .05).
These data show that direct revascularization of arteries supplying the diabetic foot ulcer site by means of the angiosome model is associated with a higher healing rate and lower risk of amputation and death compared with the indirect procedure. These results support use of the angiosome model in type 2 diabetes with critical limb ischemia.
Glomus tumors are relatively rare benign tumors originated from normal glomus bodies. These tumors make up approximately 2% of all hand tumors and are most commonly found in the nail matrix and proximal nail bed of the hands. Histopathologically, they are classified into solid glomus tumor, glomangioma, and the least common type glomangiomyoma. Here we report an unusual case of subungual glomangiomyoma of the toe with dermatoscopic and histopathologic findings.