Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially fatal infection, with mortality of up to 30%. This case report describes a patient recovering from a laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell cancer who developed nosocomial necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity due to Serratia marcescens. Only eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis exclusive to the lower extremity due to S marcescens have been previously reported. Patients with S marcescens necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity often have multiple comorbidities, are frequently immunosuppressed, and have a strikingly high mortality rate.
Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) is used for severe hindfoot deformities, end-stage arthritis, and limb salvage. The procedure is technically demanding, with complications such as infection, hardware failure, nonunion, osteomyelitis, and possible limb loss or death. This study reports the outcomes and complications of patients undergoing TTCA with a femoral nail, which is widely available and offers an extensive range of lengths and diameters.
We performed a retrospective review of 104 patients who underwent 109 TTCAs using a femoral nail as the primary procedure (January 2006 through December 2016). Demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated.
At final follow-up, the overall clinical union rate was 89 of 109 (81.7%). Diabetes mellitus was negatively associated with limb salvage (P = .03), and peripheral neuropathy (P = .02) and Charcot's neuroarthropathy (P = .03) were negatively associated with clinical union. Only four patients (3.8%) underwent proximal amputation, at an average of 6.1 months, and 11 patients (10.6%) died, at a mean of 38.0 months. The most common complication was ulceration in 27 of 109 limbs (24.8%), followed by infection in 25 (22.9%). Twenty-three patients (22.1%) underwent revision procedures, at a mean of 9.4 months. Thirteen of these 23 patients (56.5%) had antibiotic cement rod spacers/rods for deep infection–related complications.
Use of a femoral nail has been shown to provide similar outcomes and limb salvage rates compared with other methods of TTCA reported for similar indications in the literature.
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin. It may occur anywhere on the skin surface but is most common in skinfolds, on the face, and in the genital region. Atypical presentations are usually seen in conditions with altered immunity, but they may occur in immunocompetent patients as well. We present a case of an unusual presentation of molluscum contagiosum lesions (multiple normal and one giant) on the plantar area of the foot in an adult.
We report a case of focal tuberculous involvement of the posterior margin of the calcaneus with preservation of the articular margin. The route of infection was direct extension through tuberculous retrocalcaneal bursitis, a rare and atypical pathogenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in ruling out neoplasm and in limiting the diagnosis to an inflammatory infectious process. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 285–290, 2005)
The utility of wound debridement has expanded to include the management of all chronic wounds, even in the absence of infection and gross necrosis. Biofilms, metalloproteases on the wound base, and senescent cells at the wound edge irreversibly change the physiologic features of wound healing and contribute to a pathologic, chronic inflammatory environment. The objective of this review is to provide surgeons with a basic understanding of the processes of debridement in the noninfected wound. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 353–359, 2010)
Background: A retrospective review of one surgeon’s practice was conducted to assess the prevalence of wound complications associated with acute and chronic rupture repair, peritenolysis, tenodesis, debridement, retrocalcaneal exostectomy/bursectomy, and management of calcific tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon.
Methods: We evaluated the incidence of infection and other wound complications, such as suture reactions, scar revision, hematoma, incisional neuromas, and granuloma formation.
Results: A total of 219 surgical cases were available for review (140 males and 70 females; mean ± SD age at the time of surgery, 46.5 ± 12.6 years; age range, 16–75 years). Seven patients experienced a wound infection, three had keloid formation, six had suture granulomas, and six had suture abscesses, for a total complication rate of 10.0%. Six patients had more than one complication; therefore, the percentage of patients with complications was 7.3%. There were no hematomas. Seven patients had additional surgery after their wound complications; some had simple granuloma excision, and one necessitated a flap. Patients with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, smoking, and rheumatoid arthritis necessitating corticosteroid therapy were more likely to have a wound complication (Fisher exact test, P = .03).
Conclusions: Complications with Achilles tendon surgery may be unavoidable. Suture granulomas may appear in a delayed manner. Absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures can be implicated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 95–101, 2008)
Hurricane Harvey Aftermath
An Interdisciplinary Case Report on the Management of an Open Bimalleolar Fracture
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes and severe flooding, pose a threat of increased skin and soft-tissue infections, especially in the event of open fractures and wading through the waters. The purpose of this case study is to present a complex patient sustaining trauma resulting in an open bimalleolar fracture, multiple wounds, and exposure to a variety of water-borne pathogens during Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Texas, in 2017. He underwent multiple incision and drainage procedures, tissue cultures, and placement of antibiotic beads, with an application of external fixation to the left ankle. Several unique multidrug-resistant water-borne pathogens were identified, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida, and Serratia marcescens. Once the soft-tissue envelope was restored and infection cleared, a full-thickness rotational flap with tissue expansion was performed. Ultimate reconstruction was delayed several weeks and final left ankle open reduction and internal fixation was performed following antimicrobial treatment with split-thickness skin autograft and wound vacuum-assisted closure application. The patient was discharged after 28 days with no further complications. In instances such as these, all caretakers coming into contact with the patient should be aware of the potential risks of the possible infectious diseases and management to optimize the recovery following hydrologic disasters.
A 55-year-old woman with a complicated infected nonunion after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis is presented. The patient initially underwent cross-screw fixation for the treatment of hallux rigidus that resulted in joint infection and hardware loosening. A staged surgical approach was undertaken by means of initial hardware removal with implementation of an antibiotic cement spacer followed by revision arthrodesis with interposition of tricortical iliac crest autograft. This case report aims to highlight an accepted surgical approach to address an infected nonunion at the level of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
Background: We sought to determine the incidence of tinea pedis in patients with otherwise asymptomatic pedal interdigital macerations. Both diabetic and nondiabetic populations were compared. Age and body mass index were also examined for their significance.
Methods: Fungal cultures of skin scrapings from 80 patients (77 male and 3 female; mean age, 65 years) with interdigital macerations were performed; 40 patients had previously been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 40 did not have diabetes.
Results: Cultures revealed a 40% prevalence of tinea pedis in the total study population. The prevalence in the nondiabetic group was 37.5% and 42.5% for the diabetic group. This was not a statistically significant difference. Among patients with interdigital macerations that yielded positive fungal cultures, those in the nondiabetic group were 6.3 years older than those in the diabetic group. It was also observed that the nondiabetic patients with interdigital macerations yielding positive fungal cultures were 9.1 years older than patients with negative fungal cultures in the nondiabetic group.
Conclusion: The results of this study provide the practitioner with a guide for treating pedal interdigital macerations. Because the likelihood of a tinea pedis infection is 40%, it seems prudent to treat these macerations with an antifungal agent. In regard to age, the results suggest that as nondiabetic patients age, the likelihood of an otherwise asymptomatic interdigital maceration yielding a positive fungal culture increases, and that diabetic patients may be susceptible to interdigital fungal infections at a younger age than those without diabetes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 353–356, 2008)
A rare and unusual case of plasma cell dyscrasia of the calcaneus is presented. Clinically, the patient had a draining and painful ulcer that was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care but failed to show any signs of healing. Radiographic images showed cystic changes of the calcaneus in the vicinity of the ulcer. Blood work was negative for bone and soft-tissue infection, but uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. Nuclear bone scan showed increased uptake in the calcaneus suggestive of osteomyelitis. One possible differential diagnosis was an intraosseous gouty tophus deposit. Not convinced that this was either a bone infection or gout, the author performed a bone biopsy. Pathologic evaluation indicated plasma cell dyscrasia. Continued wound care healed the ulcer completely, with resolution of pain of his heel. Oncology/hematology was consulted, and 16 months after biopsy, he remains asymptomatic.