The Foot Posture Index (FPI) quantifies foot posture on the basis of six criteria. Although the male foot is longer and broader than the female foot, limited evidence exists about the differences in foot posture between the sexes and which are its biological and anthropometric determinants. We sought to evaluate possible sex differences in the FPI and the determinants influencing foot posture.
In 400 individuals (201 men and 199 women), the FPI was determined in the static bipedal stance and relaxed position. The FPI was obtained as the sum of the scores (−2, −1, 0, 1, or 2) given to each of six criteria. A multiple regression model was constructed of the overall FPI against age, weight, height, body mass index, and foot size.
The mean ± SD FPI was 2.0 ± 4.3 overall, 1.6 ± 4.5 for men, and 2.4 ± 4.1 for women, with the difference being nonsignificant (P = .142). The neutral posture was the most frequent (57.3%). A greater proportion of women had neutral and pronated feet, and a greater proportion of men had supinated and highly supinated feet, with the differences being nonsignificant (P = .143). Foot size, height, and body mass index together explained 10.1% of the overall FPI value (P < .001).
The most frequent posture was neutral with a certain degree of pronation, with no differences in FPI values between men and women. Participants with larger foot sizes had higher FPI values, whereas taller and heavier participants had lower FPI values. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 400–404, 2013)
Sever's disease is a common cause of pain in growing kids. Many papers reported in the literature discuss this pathologic condition, but no consensus regarding its etiology has been found among researchers. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic profile and associated factors of 430 athletic children in a population-based sample of soccer (29.5%), basketball (48.1%), and volleyball (22.3%) players aged 6 to 14 years.
Every athlete was evaluated through physical examination, the Foot Posture Index (FPI), the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire, and a custom-made sports questionnaire.
These data show that body mass index, sex, terrain type, sports discipline, and FPI should not be considered as risk factors for calcaneal apophysitis, whereas a significantly higher risk has been found in younger individuals (P < .01), in those with fewer training sessions per week (P = .02), and in those with shorter training sessions (P < .01).
The prevalence of Sever's disease in the athletic children evaluated in the present study was higher in younger and less active patients, whereas no differences were registered by sex, FPI, body mass index, terrain type, or sports discipline.
The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and plantar loading variables related to hallux valgus. Fifty-one healthy control subjects and 40 subjects with a diagnosis of moderate hallux valgus deformity of similar age and body weight were recruited for this study. Clinical measurements of pain, first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion, and single-leg resting calcaneal stance position were obtained. Biomechanical measurements were obtained using a capacitive pressure platform. Plantar loading variables were calculated for seven regions of the plantar surface. A univariate analysis followed by a stepwise logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that high values for pain, single-leg resting calcaneal stance position, hallux region peak pressure and force–time integral, and central forefoot region force–time integral increased the likelihood of hallux valgus. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(2): 97-103, 2003)
This study compares the potential benefit of fifth metatarsal head resection versus standard conservative treatment of plantar ulcerations in people with diabetes mellitus. Using a retrospective cohort model, we abstracted data from 40 patients (22 cases and 18 controls) treated for uninfected, nonischemic diabetic foot wounds beneath the fifth metatarsal head. There were no significant differences in sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, or degree of glucose control between cases and controls. Patients who underwent a fifth metatarsal head resection healed significantly faster (mean ± SD, 5.8 ± 2.9 versus 8.7 ± 4.3 weeks). Patients were much less likely to reulcerate during the period of evaluation in the surgical group (4.5% versus 27.8%). The results of this study suggest that fifth metatarsal head resection is a potentially effective treatment in patients at high risk of ulceration and reulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 353–356, 2005)
The low-Dye strap is used routinely to temporarily control pronation of the foot and, thereby, to diagnose and treat pronatory sequelae. However, the exact biomechanical effects of this strapping technique on the foot are not well documented. The main purpose of this study was to establish the specific mechanical effects of the low-Dye strap on the pronatory foot. Within this context, the specific aim was to assess the effect of the low-Dye strap on three distinct pronation-sensitive mechanical attributes of the foot in the weightbearing state: 1) calcaneal eversion, 2) first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion, and 3) medial longitudinal arch height. Weightbearing measurements of these three attributes were made before and after application of a low-Dye strap, and statistical comparisons were made. The results of this study indicate that the low-Dye strap is effective in reducing calcaneal eversion, increasing first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion, and increasing medial longitudinal arch height in the weightbearing state. Knowledge of the exact mechanisms of action of the low-Dye strap will provide practitioners with greater confidence in the use of this modality. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(2): 118-123, 2003)
Anthropometric status can influence gait biomechanics, but there is relatively little published research regarding foot and ankle characteristics in the obese pediatric population. We sought to compare the structural and functional characteristics of the foot and ankle complex in obese and non-obese children.
Twenty healthy children (ten obese and ten normal weight) were recruited for a cross-sectional research study. Anthropometric parameters were measured to evaluate active ankle dorsiflexion, arch height (arch height index, arch rigidity index ratio, and arch drop), foot alignment (resting calcaneal stance position and forefoot-rearfoot alignment in unloaded and loaded positions), and foot type (malleolar valgus index). Independent t tests determined significant differences between groups for all assessed parameters. Statistical significance was set at P < .0125.
Compared with non-obese participants, obese participants had significantly greater arch drop (mean ± SD: 5.10 ± 2.13 mm versus 2.90 ± 1.20 mm; P =.011) and a trend toward lower arch rigidity index ratios (mean ± SD: 0.92 ± 0.03 versus 0.95 ± 0.02; P = .013). In addition, obese participants had significantly less active ankle dorsiflexion at 90° of knee flexion versus non-obese participants (mean ± SD: 19.57 ± 5.17 versus 29.07 ± 3.06; P < .001). No significant differences existed between groups for any other anthropometric measurements.
The decreased active ankle dorsiflexion in the obese group can increase foot contact for a longer period of the stance phase of gait. Obese participants also presented with a more flexible foot when bearing weight. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(1): 5–12, 2012)
Surgical intervention for chronic deformities and ulcerations has become an important component in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Such patients are no longer relegated to wearing cumbersome braces or footwear for deformities that might otherwise be easily corrected. Although surgical intervention in these often high-risk individuals is not without risk, the outcomes are fairly predictable when patients are properly selected and evaluated. In this brief review, we discuss the rationale and indications for diabetic foot surgery, focusing on the surgical decompression of deformities that frequently lead to foot ulcers. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 369–384, 2010)
The Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Through Optimal Off-Loading
Building Consensus Guidelines and Practical Recommendations to Improve Outcomes
We sought to develop a consensus statement for the use of off-loading in the management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).
A literature search of PubMed for evidence regarding off-loading of DFUs was initially conducted, followed by a meeting of authors on March 15, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to draft consensus statements and recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach to assess quality of evidence and develop strength of recommendations for each consensus statement.
Evidence is clear that adequate off-loading increases the likelihood of DFU healing and that increased clinician use of effective off-loading is necessary. Recommendations are included to guide clinicians on the optimal use of off-loading based on an initial comprehensive patient/wound assessment and the necessity to improve patient adherence with off-loading devices.
The likelihood of DFU healing is increased with off-loading adherence, and, current evidence favors the use of nonremovable casts or fixed ankle walking braces as optimum off-loading modalities. There currently exists a gap between what the evidence supports regarding the efficacy of DFU off-loading and what is performed in clinical practice despite expert consensus on the standard of care.
Poorly fitting footwear has frequently been cited as an etiologic factor in the pathway to diabetic foot ulceration. However, we are unaware of any reports in the medical literature specifically measuring shoe size versus foot size in this high-risk population. We assessed the prevalence of poorly fitting footwear in individuals with and without diabetic foot ulceration. We evaluated the shoe size of 440 consecutive patients (94.1% male; mean ± SD age, 67.2 ± 12.5 years) presenting to an interdisciplinary teaching clinic. Of this population, 58.4% were diagnosed as having diabetes, and 6.8% had active diabetic foot ulceration. Only 25.5% of the patients were wearing appropriately sized shoes. Individuals with diabetic foot ulceration were 5.1 times more likely to have poorly fitting shoes than those without a wound (93.3% versus 73.2%; odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–21.9; P = .02). This association was also evident when assessing only the 32.3% of the total population with diabetes and loss of protective sensation (93.3% versus 75.0%; OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.1–20.9; P = .04). Poorly fitting shoes seem to be more prevalent in people with diabetic foot wounds than in those without wounds with or without peripheral neuropathy. This implies that appropriate meticulous screening for shoe-foot mismatches may be useful in reducing the risk of lower-extremity ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 290–292, 2006)
Background: Although flexible flatfoot (FF) in children is a foot deformity that is frequently encountered in daily orthopedics practice, its etiology is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a weakness in muscle strength and proprioception in patients with FF.
Methods: The study group consisted of 16 cases with FF, and the control group consisted of 25 volunteers with normal feet. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength and proprioception of movement directions of plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion (EV), and inversion (INV) in both groups.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in strength of plantarflexion and dorsiflexion muscles, whereas in the control group, proprioception of all four movement directions and strengths of the EV and INV muscles were found to be statistically significantly higher (P < .05).
Conclusions: There is weakness in EV and INV muscle strength and proprioception disorder in patients with FF. We recommend conducting further studies that validate muscle weakness and proprioception disorders with different study designs and evaluate the effectiveness of improving muscle strength and proprioception weakness in FF.