The author places the history and development of podiatric biomechanics, as well as current thinking about its underpinnings and future, in the context of a theoretical framework drawn from the philosophy and sociology of science. This analysis sets the stage for an exploration of the possible future directions in which podiatric biomechanics could develop.
The scope of podiatric practice has changed significantly in the past couple of decades. Despite the increased quality of training, many people outside of podiatry may not realize what our scope of practice entails.
We conducted a survey consisting of 10 items and asked internal medicine residents at Rush University Medical Center and patients whether they would feel comfortable consulting podiatrists, or being treated for each issue.
The results for residents are as follows: 1) toenail fungus, 35% yes and 65% no; 2) diabetic wound care, 87.5% yes and 12.5% no; 3) bunion surgery, 90% yes and 10% no; 4) ankle fracture surgery, 25% yes and 75% no; 5) calcaneal fracture surgery, 50% yes and 50% no; 6) tarsal tunnel nerve surgery, 62.5% yes and 37.5% no; 7) lower extremity arterial bypass, 5% yes and 95% no; 8) below-knee amputation, 5% yes and 95% no; 9) transmetatarsal amputation, 67.5% yes and 32.5% no; and 10) venous stasis wound care, 65% yes and 35% no. The results for patients are as follows: 1) toenail fungus, 72.5% yes and 27.5% no; 2) diabetic wound care, 70% yes and 30% no; 3) bunion surgery, 62.5% yes and 37.5% no; 4) ankle fracture surgery, 57.5% yes and 42.5% no; 5) calcaneal fracture surgery, 55% yes and 45% no; 6) tarsal tunnel nerve surgery, 50% yes and 50% no; 7) lower extremity arterial bypass, 32.5% yes and 67.5% no; 8) below-knee amputation, 27.5% yes and 72.5% no; 9) transmetatarsal amputation, 52.5% yes and 47.5% no; and 10) venous stasis wound care, 32.5% yes and 67.5% no.
Internal medicine residents and patients do not have an accurate perception of the scope of podiatric medicine. This proves that, as a profession, we need to raise awareness about what the podiatric scope of medicine actually entails.
The author provides a general overview of the development of postgraduate residency training in podiatric medicine since 1956. The evolution of residency standards and requirements of the Council on Podiatric Medical Education are discussed. Integration of specialty organizations in the residency evaluation process also are reviewed. The author notes that the current positive number of entry level residency positions available to graduates of colleges of podiatric medicine may be a dubious facade in view of increasing college enrollments and the potential conversion of rotating podiatric residencies to residencies in primary podiatric medicine. He cautions the profession not to overlook these events as it considers the development of the PGY-1 concept in the restructuring of entry level residency training.
As the number and complexity of operative techniques taught at U.S. podiatric medicine and surgical residencies (PMSR) with the added credential in reconstructive rearfoot and ankle (RRA) surgery has continued to increase, so to has the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. The purpose of the present prospective observational pilot study was to quantify and compare the shallow dose equivalent (SDE), deep dose equivalent (DDE), and lens of the eye dose equivalent (LDE) exposures for podiatric medicine and surgery residents at a single PMSR-RRA over 12 consecutive months. Shallow-dose equivalent, DDE, and LDE exposures (in millirems) were measured using Landauer Luxel dosimeters from July of 2018 to July of 2019. Dosimeters were exchanged monthly, and mean monthly/annual SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures were calculated and compared. Overall, residents averaged 19 operative cases per month and 222 per year. More than half (53%) required intraoperative fluoroscopy, for which a mini C-arm was used in most cases. Monthly SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures averaged 7.3, 9.3, and 7.0 mrem, respectively; whereas annual SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures averaged 87.3, 112, and 84 mrem, respectively. No significant monthly (P = 1.0, P = .70, and P = .74) or annual (P = .67, P = .67, and P = .33) differences were identified between residents. The annual SDE, DDE, and LDE for residents at a single PMSR-RRA were well below the recommended dose limits of 50,000 mrem/year (SDE), 5,000 mrem/year (DDE), and 15,000 mrem/year (LDE) set by the National Council on Radiation Protection. However, given that the stochastic effects from low levels of ionizing radiation are cumulative, not well studied long-term, and relate both to the degree and duration of exposure, mini-C arm fluoroscopy, radiation tracking, and use of personal protective equipment provide simple means for residents to reduce any long-term potential for risk.
Toe pressures and the toe brachial index (TBI) represent possible screening tools for peripheral arterial disease; however, limited evidence is available regarding their reliability. The aim of this study was to determine intratester and intertester reliability of toe systolic pressure and the TBI in participants with and without diabetes performed by podiatric physicians.
Two podiatric physicians performed toe and brachial pressure measurements on 80 participants, 40 with and 40 without diabetes, during two testing sessions using photoplethysmography and Doppler probe. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% limits of agreement were determined.
In people with diabetes, intratester reliability of toe pressure measurement was excellent for both testers (ICCs, 0.84 and 0.82). Reliability of the TBI was good (ICCs, 0.72 and 0.75) and brachial pressure fair (ICCs, 0.43 and 0.55). The intertester reliability of toe pressure (ICC, 0.82) and the TBI (ICC, 0.80) was excellent. Intertester reliability of brachial pressure was reduced in people with diabetes (ICC, 0.49). In age-matched participants, intratester reliability of toe pressure measurement was excellent for both testers (ICCs, 0.83 and 0.87), and reliability of the TBI (ICCs, 0.74 and 0.80) and brachial pressure (ICCs, 0.73 and 0.78) was good to excellent. Intertester reliability of toe pressure (ICC, 0.84), the TBI (ICC, 0.81), and brachial pressure (ICC, 0.77) was excellent.
Toe pressures and the TBI demonstrated excellent reliability in people with and without diabetes and can be an effective component of lower-extremity vascular screening. However, wide limits of agreement relative to blood pressure values for both cohorts indicate that results should be interpreted with caution.
Not all abstracts accepted for oral presentation at the annual conference of the American Podiatric Medical Association ultimately go on to successfully navigate the peer-review process to achieve journal publication despite its obvious merits. The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with and barriers to journal publication and time to publication for oral abstracts from the American Podiatric Medical Association conference from 2010 to 2014. Databases containing information on the abstracts were procured and predictor variables categorized as abstract- or author-specific. Bivariate analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, chi-square test of independence, or Spearman rank correlation. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear regression models were used to analyze predictor variables. A questionnaire was distributed to the primary authors of any unpublished abstracts to determine the current status of the abstract, in addition to the reasons for the failure to pursue or achieve journal publication. Overall, oral abstracts by authors without a formal research degree were published more often than abstracts by authors with a research degree, as were funded projects (P = .031). No other associations were identified between any of the abstract- and author-specific variables and successful conversion of an oral abstract to a journal publication or the time to publication. Six barriers questionnaires were completed. At the time of the survey, two oral abstracts had since achieved publication, two had been submitted for publication but were rejected, and two had never been submitted. The principal reason cited by the authors for the failure to pursue or achieve journal publication was insufficient time for manuscript preparation.
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in the podiatric patient population. A total of 355 consecutive patients in a podiatric outpatient clinic were evaluated to determine whether they met the criteria for this condition. Eight of the 355 patients were diagnosed with the condition. Thirty-five of 355 patients presented with plantar heel or arch pain. Seven of these 35 patients satisfied the criteria for fibromyalgia. This small study indicates that fibromyalgia may be more prevalent in podiatric patients than previously realized and must be considered in patients presenting with foot pain, especially if that pain is in the area of the plantar aspect of the heel or arch.
Background: Because value-based care is critical to the Affordable Care Act success, we forecasted inpatient costs and the potential impact of podiatric medical care on savings in the diabetic population through improved care quality and decreased resource use during implementation of the health reform initiatives in California.
Methods: We forecasted enrollment of diabetic adults into Medicaid and subsidized health benefit exchange programs using the California Simulation of Insurance Markets (CalSIM) base model. Amputations and admissions per 1,000 diabetic patients and inpatient costs were based on the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 2009-2011 inpatient discharge files. We evaluated cost in three categories: uncomplicated admissions, amputations during admissions, and discharges to a skilled nursing facility. Total costs and projected savings were calculated by applying the metrics and cost to the projected enrollment.
Results: Diabetic patients accounted for 6.6% of those newly eligible for Medicaid or health benefit exchange subsidies, with a 60.8% take-up rate. We project costs to be $24.2 million in the diabetic take-up population from 2014 to 2019. Inpatient costs were 94.3% higher when amputations occurred during the admission and 46.7% higher when discharged to a skilled nursing facility. Meanwhile, 61.0% of costs were attributed to uncomplicated admissions. Podiatric medical services saved 4.1% with a 10% reduction in admissions and amputations and an additional 1% for every 10% improvement in access to podiatric medical care.
Conclusions: When implementing the Affordable Care Act, inclusion of podiatric medical services on multidisciplinary teams and in chronic-care models featuring prevention helps shift care to ambulatory settings to realize the greatest cost savings.