Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is a neoplasm affecting the lymphatic system. Mycosis fungoides is the most common subset of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and is often treated conservatively. This neoplasm is most common in adults older than 60 years and does not regularly manifest in the toes. A case is reported of a 70-year-old man seen for a nonhealing hallux ulceration leading to amputation. Histopathologic examination revealed a rare transformed CD30+ high-grade cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The morbidity of lymphomas is highly dependent on type and grade. Pharmaceutical precision therapies exist that target specific molecular defects or abnormally expressed genes, such as high expression of CD30. This article focuses on treatment protocol and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, determination of cell type, and proper referral of atypical dermatologic lesions.
A 13-year-old girl presented to the emergency department in stable condition with a retained penetrating knife wound injury in her right foot. Routine radiographs taken of the foot revealed deep tissue penetration by the knife without frank bony involvement. It was decided to remove the object in the operating room. Simple removal was performed, followed by wound exploration. The patient was admitted to the hospital for one night of observation and then was discharged without further complications.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and recovery of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted to the hospital with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) with foot infections.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 294 patients with DM and 88 without DM admitted to the hospital with foot infections. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines were used to define AKI. Recovery was divided into three categories: full, partial, and no recovery within 90 days of the index AKI.
Results: The AKI incidence was 3.0 times higher in patients with DM (DM 48.5% versus no DM 23.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74–5.19; P < .01). Acute kidney injury incidence was similar at each stage in people with and without DM (stage 1, DM 58.1% versus no DM 47.6%; stage 2, DM 23.3% versus no DM 33.3%, and stage 3, DM 18.6% versus no DM 19.1%). Twenty-nine patients with diabetes had a second AKI event and four had a third event. In patients without DM, one patient had a second AKI. Cumulative AKI incidence was 4.7 times higher in people with DM (DM 60.9% versus no DM 25.0%; 95% CI, 2.72–8.03; P < .01). Patients with diabetes progressed to chronic kidney disease or in chronic kidney disease stage 39.4% of the time. Patients without diabetes progressed 16.7% of the time, but this trend was not significant (P = .07). Complete recovery was 3.8 times more likely in patients without diabetes (95% CI, 1.26–11.16; P = .02).
Conclusions: Acute kidney injury incidence is higher in patients with diabetes, and complete recovery after an AKI is less likely compared to patients without diabetes.
Sixty-two patients were treated for single or multiple warts by intralesional injection of bleomycin sulfate (1.5 U/mL) and then were observed for 6 months. The dose varied according to the size of the lesion and ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 mL per injection per lesion, up to a maximum dose of 3 mL. The total cure rate was 87% after one or two injections. Twelve of the 62 patients required a second injection. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 220–225, 2006)
Acute rheumatic fever is a delayed inflammatory disease that follows streptococcal infection of the throat. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis is a sterile arthritis associated with antecedent streptococcal infection in patients not fulfilling the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis has been reported to have lower-extremity predominance and, therefore, should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with lower-extremity arthritis. A review of the literature, distinguishing poststreptococcal reactive arthritis from acute rheumatic fever, and treatment options are discussed here. A case report is also presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 362–366, 2006)
Background: A retrospective review of one surgeon’s practice was conducted to assess the prevalence of wound complications associated with acute and chronic rupture repair, peritenolysis, tenodesis, debridement, retrocalcaneal exostectomy/bursectomy, and management of calcific tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon.
Methods: We evaluated the incidence of infection and other wound complications, such as suture reactions, scar revision, hematoma, incisional neuromas, and granuloma formation.
Results: A total of 219 surgical cases were available for review (140 males and 70 females; mean ± SD age at the time of surgery, 46.5 ± 12.6 years; age range, 16–75 years). Seven patients experienced a wound infection, three had keloid formation, six had suture granulomas, and six had suture abscesses, for a total complication rate of 10.0%. Six patients had more than one complication; therefore, the percentage of patients with complications was 7.3%. There were no hematomas. Seven patients had additional surgery after their wound complications; some had simple granuloma excision, and one necessitated a flap. Patients with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, smoking, and rheumatoid arthritis necessitating corticosteroid therapy were more likely to have a wound complication (Fisher exact test, P = .03).
Conclusions: Complications with Achilles tendon surgery may be unavoidable. Suture granulomas may appear in a delayed manner. Absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures can be implicated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 95–101, 2008)
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the main cause of hospitalizations and amputations in diabetic patients. Failure of standard foot care is the most important cause of impaired DFU healing. Dakin’s solution (DS) is a promising broad-spectrum bactericidal antiseptic for management of DFUs. Studies investigating the efficacy of using DS on the healing process of DFUs are scarce. Accordingly, this is the first evidence-based, randomized, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effect of using diluted DS compared with the standard care in the management of infected DFUs.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of DS in the management of infected DFUs. Patients were distributed randomly to the control group (DFUs irrigated with normal saline) or the intervention group (DFUs irrigated with 0.1% DS). Patients were followed for at least 24 weeks for healing, reinfection, or amputations. In vitro antimicrobial testing on DS was performed, including determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimum biofilm eradication concentration, and suspension test.
Results: Replacing normal saline irrigation in DFU standard care with 0.1% DS followed by soaking the ulcer with commercial sodium hypochlorite (0.08%) after patient discharge significantly improved ulcer healing (P < .001) and decreased the number of amputations and hospitalizations (P < .001). The endpoint of death from any cause (risk ratio, 0.13; P = .029) and the amputation rate (risk ratio, 0.27; P < .001) were also significantly reduced. The effect on ulcer closure (OR, 11.9; P < .001) was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control group. Moreover, DS irrigation for inpatients significantly decreased bacterial load (P < .001). The highest values for the in-vitro analysis of DS were as follows: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1.44%; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 1.44%; minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), 2.16%; and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), 2.87%.
Conclusions: Compared with standard care, diluted DS (0.1%) was more effective in the management of infected DFUs. Dakin’s solution (0.1%) irrigation with debridement followed by standard care is a promising method in the management of infected DFUs.
Over a time frame of less than 1 year, a 23-year-old competitive horseback rider experienced a midsubstance tear of both the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons without inciting injury. It was after the second spontaneous tear that the patient's recent diagnosis of Lyme disease became the likely culprit. Often, patients with chronic Lyme disease present with an elaborate clinical picture that can mimic many more common diagnoses such as septic arthritis, transient synovitis, ligamentous sprain, and various other traumatic injuries. With the pathognomonic erythema migrans rash reported to be present less than 50% of the time in late-stage infections, the diagnosis of Lyme disease can often be difficult, with a high rate of underdiagnosis. It is important that Lyme disease be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous tendon pathology, especially for physicians practicing in highly endemic areas. The treatment is relatively simple and successful—especially for an acute infection—and it is important to initiate treatment promptly to prevent disability.
Hemimelia of the lower limb belongs to the group of congenital deficiency disorders. The clinical spectrum ranges from minimal shortening of the long bones to severe deficiencies of the extremities. Several etiologies, such as X-rays or drugs, have been implicated to be responsible for hemimelia. In the present report the clinical course and the long-term follow-up of a patient with transverse terminal hemimelia of the left foot at the level of the basis of the metatarsals is described. Due to frequent episodes of pain, development of pressure sores, and an increasing psychological burden, operative intervention consisting of a lengthening procedure using an Ilizarov fixator was indicated. Long-term outcome was good; the patient is now able to painlessly wear conventional shoes and displays a normal gait pattern. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(5): 456–461, 2011)
Severely comminuted fractures of the metatarsal bones with significant bone and soft-tissue loss have commonly subjected patients to proximal amputation procedures. We describe two patients who experienced high-energy traumatic injuries to their limbs that resulted in significant destruction of their first and second metatarsal bones with overlying soft-tissue trauma not amenable to local coverage. In both cases, a vascularized free fibular osteocutaneous flap was used to reconstruct the metatarsal bone defect and traumatized soft tissues so that a proximal amputation was avoided. At an average of 14 months of follow-up, both patients had recovered well and regained independent ambulation, with one patient being able to play soccer. We show that the free fibular osteoseptocutaneous flap is useful in reconstructing significant metatarsal bone defects and in avoiding amputations in this patient population. The skin component of the flap may be used to fill soft-tissue losses, and the fibula bone may be osteotomized so that more than one ray may be reconstructed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 531–536, 2011)