Osteomyelitis is a common complication in the diabetic foot that can conclude with amputation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).
Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a DFU were enrolled. Both DWIs and conventional MRIs were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to a workstation. The measurements were made both from bone with osteomyelitis, or nearest to the injured area if osteomyelitis is not available, and from the adjacent soft tissue.
The patients comprised nine women (30%) and 21 men (70%) with a mean age of 58.7 years (range, 41–78 years). The levels of ADC were significantly low (P = .022) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rates were significantly high (P = .014) in patients with osteomyelitis (n = 9) compared with patients without osteomyelitis (n = 21). The mean ± SD bone ADC value (0.75 ± 0.16 × 10–3 mm2/sec) was significantly lower than the adjacent soft-tissue ADC value (0.90 ± 0.15 × 10–3 mm2/sec) in patients with osteomyelitis (P = .04).
It is suggested that DWI contributes to conventional MRI with short imaging time and no requirement for contrast agent. Therefore, DWI may be an alternative diagnostic method for the evaluation of DFU and the detection of osteomyelitis.
Ankle position sense may be reduced before the appearance of the clinical manifestation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This is known to impair gait and cause falls and foot ulcers. Early detection of impaired ankle proprioception is important because it allows physicians to prescribe an exercise program to patients to prevent foot complications.
Forty-six patients diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus and 22 control patients were included in the study. Presence of neuropathy was assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Level of foot care awareness was determined using the Nottingham Assessment of Functional Footcare (NAFF). Joint position sense was measured using a dynamometer.
Mean absolute angular error (MAAE) values were significantly higher in the neuropathy group compared with the control group (P < .05). Right plantarflexion MAAE values were significantly lower in the group without neuropathy compared with the group with neuropathy (P < .05). No correlation was found between MAAE values (indicating joint position sense) and age, educational level, disease duration, glycemic control, NAFF score, and MNSI history and examination scores in the groups with and without neuropathy (P > .05). Educational level and disease duration were found to be correlated with NAFF scores.
Increased MNSI history scores and increased deficits in ankle proprioception demonstrate that diabetic foot complications associated with reduced joint position sense may be seen at an increased rate in symptomatic patients.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The benefits of using amniotic tissue in skin regeneration are well documented. Today, cryopreservation technology allows for better availability and maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells. This is of particular interest in treating the diabetic foot ulcer as this population has fewer mesenchymal stem cells. The objective of this case series investigation was to compare the efficacy of cryopreserved human amniotic stem cells in treating foot wounds of different etiologies. We will present data and case photos for a diabetic foot ulcer, venous leg ulcer, arterial ankle ulcer, and a pyoderma gangrenosum ulcer
METHODS: Cryopreserved human amniotic stem cell grafts were applied to patients with chronic ulcers of different etiologies that had been subjected to at least 4 weeks of standard wound care and did not show adequate clinical progress. Wound area was recorded and photographed on weekly basis. Area reduction was charted over time and the results of each individual case were compared to one another.
RESULTS: All ulcers displayed results that well exceeded the established parameters of weekly healing rates for effective wound treatment modalities.
â€¢ Pyoderma gangrenosum displayed the poorest response to treatment. However, it is worth noting that the patient was not compliant in the prescribed adjunctive treatment regimen but managed to achieve 64% wound reduction.
â€¢ All ulcers showed the largest appreciable amount of healing in both total area reduction and week-to- week closure percentage after the first application.
CONCLUSIONS: Cryopreserved human amniotic stem cell grafts can aid in the decreasing the time to closure of various types of lower extremity ulcerations. The therapy is a clinically viable option for physicians to consider when formulating a treatment plan for a patient with an ulcer.
The aim of this pilot study was to determine the safety and potential benefit of adding a topical gentamicin-collagen sponge to standard of care (systemic antibiotic therapy plus standard diabetic wound management) for treating diabetic foot infections of moderate severity.
We randomized 56 patients with moderately infected diabetic foot ulcers in a 2:1 ratio to receive standard of care plus the gentamicin-collagen sponge (treatment group, n = 38) or standard of care only (control group, n = 18) for up to 28 days of treatment. Investigators performed clinical, microbiological, and safety assessments at regularly scheduled intervals and collected pharmacokinetic samples from patients treated with the gentamicin-collagen sponge. Test of cure was clinically assessed 14 days after all antibiotic therapy was stopped.
On treatment day 7, we noted clinical cure in no treatment patients and three control patients (P = .017). However, for evaluable patients at the test-of-cure visit, the treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with clinical cure than did the control group (22 of 22 [100.0%] versus 7 of 10 [70.0%]; P =.024). Patients in the treatment group also had a higher rate of eradication of baseline pathogens at all visits (P ≤ .038) and a reduced time to pathogen eradication (P < .001). Safety data were similar for both groups.
Topical application of the gentamicin-collagen sponge seems safe and may improve clinical and microbiological outcomes of diabetic foot infections of moderate severity when combined with standard of care. These pilot data suggest that a larger trial of this treatment is warranted. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 223-232, 2012)
We investigated plantar loading asymmetry during gait in American Indians with and without diabetes and with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.
A convenience sample of 96 American Indians with and without diabetes was divided into three groups: 20 with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, 16 with diabetes without peripheral neuropathy, and 60 with no history of diabetes (control group). Plantar loading was measured during barefoot walking across a pressure platform. Five trials were collected per foot during level walking at a self-selected speed using the two-step method. Asymmetry in peak pressure-time integral and peak plantar pressure were calculated from ten plantar regions and compared among groups.
Significant pressure-time integral asymmetry occurred across the forefoot regions in American Indians with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy compared with the other two groups. Significant peak plantar pressure asymmetry occurred in the third metatarsal region in both groups with diabetes (with and without peripheral neuropathy) compared with the control group.
Overall, American Indians with diabetes seemed to show greater asymmetry in plantar loading variables across the forefoot region compared with those in the control group. Specifically, individuals with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy had the greatest amount of forefoot pressure-time integral asymmetry. Significant peak plantar pressure asymmetry occurred in the third metatarsal region of the forefoot in those with diabetes with and without peripheral neuropathy. Loading asymmetry may play a role in the development of foot ulcers in the forefoot region of American Indians with peripheral neuropathy and diabetes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(2): 106–112, 2013)
Fifteen percent of individuals with diabetes will likely develop foot ulcers in their lifetime, and approximately 15% to 20% of these ulcers are estimated to result in lower extremity amputation. Techniques to prevent lower extremity amputation range from the simple but often neglected foot inspection to complicated vascular and reconstructive foot surgery. Appropriate management can prevent and heal diabetic foot ulcers, thereby greatly decreasing the amputation rate and medical care costs. Prevention is the key to treatment. The author discusses general guidelines for foot screening and identifies three specific goals for prevention of amputation: 1) identification of at risk individuals needing prevention and the specific factors placing them at risk; 2) protection of the foot against the adverse effects of external forces (pressure, friction, and shear); and 3) reduction of the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers through educational programs.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a devastating inflammatory infection requiring emergent medical treatment and surgical intervention. Even with timely management, the mortality rate of necrotizing fasciitis approaches 25%. The causative bacteria invade fascial planes and express toxins that advance rapidly. Here, we document a rare case of necrotizing fasciitis from Serratia marcescens infection. Serratia marcescens is capable of inducing a necrotizing inflammatory cascade mediated by extracellular cytotoxin and lipase. In this case report, a 90-year-old man presented to our emergency department from a long-term care facility with a relatively benign-appearing ulcer with surrounding cellulitis on the right ankle. Blood cultures and wound cultures confirmed the organism to be S marcescens. A multidisciplinary team was consulted for management. The patient received antibiotic therapy and medical support, but because of his comorbid conditions and social situation, the designated medical decision maker opted for comfort care rather than aggressive surgical debridement. The patient progressed through the clinical stages of necrotizing fasciitis. Within 36 hours, the patient died as result of sepsis-induced organ failure.
The Internet offers many resources in the area of wound and ulcer care that are of potential interest to podiatric physicians and students. This article provides an overview of World Wide Web sites that contain factual information, management guidelines, and illustrations pertaining to various aspects of wound and ulcer care. Web sites that emphasize preventive care are also reviewed. Because the prudent use of antimicrobial therapy is an important part of wound care, a few sites that offer antibiotic information are described.
Patient education is a fundamental aspect of the management of foot ulcers in the patient with diabetes mellitus. Preventive measures have to be focused on the individual risk profile of the patient and on the chronology of appearance of symptoms. Teaching issues need to be adapted into the following three stages: A) before: prevention of foot ulceration in the at-risk patient; B) acute: prevention of extension of an existing ulcer; and C) after: prevention of recurrence.
A kinetic change in the foot such as altered plantar pressure is the most common etiological risk factor for foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus. Kinematic alterations in joint angle and spatiotemporal parameters of gait have also been frequently observed in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy leads to various microvascular and macrovascular complications of the foot in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a gap in the literature for biomechanical evaluation and assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with DPN in the Indian population. We sought to assess and determine the biomechanical changes, including kinetics and kinematics, of the foot in DPN.
This cross-sectional study was conducted at a diabetic foot clinic in India. Using the purposive sampling method, 120 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DPN were recruited. Participants with active ulceration or amputation were excluded.
The mean ± SD age, height, weight, body mass index, and diabetes duration were 57 ± 14 years, 164 ± 11 cm, 61 ± 18 kg, 24 ± 3 kg/m2, and 12 ± 7 years, respectively. There were significant changes in the overall biomechanical profile and clinical manifestations of DPN. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for dynamic maximum plantar pressure at the forefoot with age, weight, height, diabetes duration, body mass index, knee and ankle joint angle at toe-off, pinprick sensation, and ankle reflex (R = 0.71, R2 = 0.55, F12,108 = 521.9 kPa; P = .002).
People with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DPN have significant changes in their foot kinetic and kinematic parameters. Therefore, they could be at higher risk for foot ulceration, with underlying neuropathy and biomechanically associated problems.