Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy.
The treatment of pilon tibia fractures is challenging. Anatomical reduction of the joint surface is essential. Excessive soft-tissue dissection may interfere with the blood supply and can result in nonunion. We sought to compare the outcomes of distal tibia fractures treated with medial locking plates versus circular external fixators.
We retrospectively evaluated 41 consecutive patients with closed pilon tibia fractures treated with either minimally invasive locking plate osteosynthesis (n = 21) or external fixation (EF) (n = 20). According to the Ruedi and Allgower classification, 23 fractures were type B and 18 were type C. Soft-tissue injury was evaluated according to the Oestern and Tscherne classification. Time to fracture union, complications, and functional outcomes were assessed annually for 3 years with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle score.
Mean ± SD values in the plate group were as follows: age, 42.4 ± 14 years; union time, 19.4 ± 2.89 weeks (range, 12–26 weeks); and AOFAS ankle scores, 86.4 ± 2.06, 79.5 ± 1.03, and 77.9 ± 0.80 at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Four patients in the plate group needed secondary bone grafting during follow-up. In the EF group (mean ± SD age, 40.7 ± 12.3 years), all of the patients achieved union without secondary bone grafting at a mean ± SD of 22.1 ± 1.7 weeks (range, 18–24 weeks). In the EF group, mean ± SD AOFAS ankle scores were 86.6 ± 1.69, 82.1 ± 0.77, and 79.7 ± 1.06 at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. There were no major complications. However, there were soft-tissue infections over the medial malleolus in five patients in the plate group and grade 1-2 pin-tract infections in 13 patients and grade 3 pin-tract infections in one patient in the EF group. Post-traumatic arthritis was detected in eight plate group patients and seven EF group patients.
Minimally invasive plating and circular EF methods have favorable union rates with fewer complications.
We report an unusual case of a variant of Lisfranc injury, plantar dislocation of the medial cuneiform with plantar fracture-dislocation of the intermediate cuneiform and dorsal fracture-dislocation of the lateral cuneiform, which has never been reported, to our knowledge. The entire pathologic abnormality was treated by open reduction and fixation with Kirschner wires, which were removed 8 weeks postoperatively because of pin-tract infection. Complex regional pain syndrome, which was a problem early in the recovery process, is now in remission, and at the 25-month follow-up examination, the patient was almost symptom free. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 359–363, 2009)
Acute Charcot Foot Changes versus Osteomyelitis
Does Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled Leukocytes Scan Differentiate?
Osteomyelitis often complicates a diabetic neuropathic foot, leading to amputation, decreased function, and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment are paramount. Furthermore, neuroarthropathic (Charcot) changes in the foot often resemble infection and must be differentiated. Currently, the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled Leukocytes Scan is considered to be the most reliable noninvasive imaging modality of choice in determining Charcot foot changes versus osteomyelitis. The purpose of this article is to alert the clinician that although the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled Leukocytes Scan may be the second most reliable test next to bone biopsy for determining osteomyelitis, false positives do occur. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 365-368, 2001)
Below-the-knee amputation (BKA) can be a detrimental outcome of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). Ideal treatment of DFO is controversial, but studies suggest minor amputation reduces the risk of BKA. We evaluated risk factors for BKA after minor amputation for DFO.
This is a retrospective cohort of patients discharged from Denver Health Medical Center from February 1, 2012, through December 31, 2014. Patients who underwent minor amputation for diagnosis of DFO were eligible for inclusion. The outcome evaluated was BKA in the 6 months after minor amputation.
Of 153 episodes with DFO that met the study criteria, 11 (7%) had BKA. Failure to heal surgical incision at 3 months (P < .001) and transmetatarsal amputation (P = .009) were associated with BKA in the 6 months after minor amputation. Peripheral vascular disease was associated with failure to heal but not with BKA (P = .009). Severe infection, bacteremia, hemoglobin A1c, and positive histopathologic margins of bone and soft tissue were not associated with BKA. The median antibiotic duration was 42 days for positive histopathologic bone resection margin (interquartile range, 32–47 days) and 16 days for negative margin (interquartile range, 8–29 days). Longer duration of antibiotics was not associated with lower risk of BKA.
Patients who fail to heal amputation sites in 3 months or who have transmetatarsal amputation are at increased risk for BKA. Future studies should evaluate the impact of aggressive wound care or whether failure to heal is a marker of another variable.
Background: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis is a common infection where treatment involves multiple services, including infectious diseases, podiatry, and pathology. Despite its ubiquity in the hospital, consensus on much of its management is lacking.
Methods: Representatives from infectious diseases, podiatry, and pathology interested in quality improvement developed multidisciplinary institutional recommendations culminating in an educational intervention describing optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). Knowledge acquisition was assessed by preintervention and postintervention surveys. Inpatients with forefoot DFO were retrospectively reviewed before and after intervention to assess frequency of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers, including appropriate definition of surgical bone margins, definitive histopathology reports, and unnecessary intravenous antibiotics or prolonged antibiotic courses.
Results: A postintervention survey revealed significant improvements in knowledge of antibiotic treatment duration and the role of oral antibiotics in managing DFO. There were 104 consecutive patients in the preintervention cohort (April 1, 2018, to April 1, 2019) and 32 patients in the postintervention cohort (November 5, 2019, to March 1, 2020), the latter truncated by changes in hospital practice during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Noncategorizable or equivocal disease reports decreased from before intervention to after intervention (27.0% versus 3.3%, respectively; P = .006). We observed nonsignificant improvement in correct bone margin definition (74.0% versus 87.5%; P = .11), unnecessary peripherally inserted central catheter line placement (18.3% versus 9.4%; P = .23), and unnecessary prolonged antibiotics (21.9% versus 5.0%; P = .10). In addition, by working as an interdisciplinary group, many solvable misunderstandings were identified, and processes were adjusted to improve the quality of care provided to these patients.
Conclusions: This quality improvement initiative regarding management of DFO led to improved provider knowledge and collaborative competency between these three departments, improvements in definitive pathology reports, and nonsignificant improvement in several other clinical endpoints. Creating collaborative competency may be an effective local strategy to improve knowledge of diabetic foot infection and may generalize to other common multidisciplinary conditions.
A prospective epidemiologic survey on the prevalence of foot disease in Hong Kong found foot disease in 64% of patients screened. All of the patients were ethnically Chinese. Of the conditions specified in the questionnaire, fungal foot infection, tinea pedis, and toenail onychomycosis were the most frequently encountered conditions, followed by metatarsal corns, eczema, psoriasis, and pes planus. Vascular disease, osteoarticular pathology, diabetes mellitus, obesity, atopy, and participation in sports were the main factors coexisting with the foot conditions. Of the study population, 17% and 21% reported that their quality of life was affected by pain and discomfort, respectively. These percentages are much lower than those obtained in other studies; it may therefore be inferred that foot complaints are being neglected by the ethnic Chinese population in Hong Kong. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 450-456, 2002)
The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the risks of prescribing trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for patients who have kidney or cardiac pathology, have hyperkalemia, or take other interacting medications. Although TMP/SMX is a drug that is frequently used to treat skin and soft-tissue infections of the leg and foot, particularly if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is identified, it is not an innocuous antibiotic. Literature documenting the many adverse effects of TMP/SMX is reviewed. A case history is presented illustrating the association of TMP/SMX with the development of a life-threatening situation. Ways of avoiding these adverse events are discussed, and the use of safer antibiotics is recommended.
Azole antifungal agents (eg, fluconazole and itraconazole) have been widely used to treat superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes and, unlike the allylamines (such as terbinafine and naftifine), have been associated with resistance development. Although many published manuscripts describe resistance to azoles among yeast and molds, reports describing resistance of dermatophytes are starting to appear. In this review, I discuss the mode of action of azole antifungals and mechanisms underlying their resistance compared with the allylamine class of compounds. Data from published and original studies were compared and summarized, and their clinical implications are discussed. In contrast to the cidal allylamines, static drugs such as azoles permit the occurrence of mutations in enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, and the ergosterol precursors accumulating as a consequence of azole action are not toxic. Azole antifungals, unlike allylamines, potentiate resistance development in dermatophytes.
At the end of an anatomical peninsula, the foot in diabetes is prone to short- and long-term complications involving neuropathy, vasculopathy, and infection. Effective management requires an interdisciplinary effort focusing on this triad. Herein, we describe the key factors leading to foot complications and the critical skill sets required to assemble a team to care for them. Although specific attention is given to a conjoined model involving podiatric medicine and vascular surgery, the so-called toe and flow model, we further outline three separate programmatic models of care—basic, intermediate, and center of excellence—that can be implemented in the developed and developing world. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 342–348, 2010)