Closed rupture of the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon is rare, with most cases caused by either direct penetrating trauma or predisposing factors such as corticosteroid injection and iatrogenic trauma incidences. Almost all of the previous case reports have reported on rupture of the EHL tendon rather than the EHL muscle. In this report, we highlight an unusual clinical presentation of a rupture of the EHL muscle and discuss its predisposing factors. This patient was a taekwondo athlete with EHL muscle rupture secondary to repetitive overuse without any underlying systemic or local predisposing factors or direct trauma. Fifteen months after successful surgical treatment, he became fully functional again as an elite taekwondo athlete.
Plantar heel pain syndrome, which has a multifactorial and widely disputed etiology, affects more than 2 million people annually. A survey was conducted of members of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine about their strategies for managing plantar heel pain syndrome, especially the role of injectable corticosteroids. The respondents tended to be experienced (10–24 years in practice) podiatric physicians with a concentration in sports medicine. They reported that for early-stage plantar heel pain syndrome they generally recommend avoidance of wearing flat shoes and walking barefoot (92%), use of over-the-counter arch supports and heel cushions (90%), regular stretching of the calf muscles (88%), strapping of the foot (75%), cryotherapy applied directly to the affected part of the foot (67%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy (60%). When these measures fail to relieve heel pain, most of the responding podiatric physicians recommend using custom orthotic devices (60%) and corticosteroid injections (60%) as intermediate therapy. Surgical plantar fasciotomy (88%), cast immobilization (77%), and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (69%) are generally recommended as late-stage therapy for resistant cases. A staged approach seems to yield the best results in treatment of this common condition. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 68–74, 2007)
Background: Plantar fasciopathy (or plantar fasciitis) is considered to be one of the most common foot abnormalities, affecting up to 2 million Americans each year, and the chief complaint is acute heel pain. Therapeutic protocols for this condition have included stretching exercises, corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, and foot orthoses, but a single modality has not been found to be universally effective. We sought to determine the efficacy of stretching with dynamic splinting for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
Methods: Sixty patients (76 feet) were enrolled in this 12-week study from four different clinics across the United States. Patients were randomly categorized into experimental and control groups. All of the patients received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, orthoses, and corticosteroid injections if needed. Thirty experimental patients also received dynamic splinting for nightly wear to obtain a low-load, prolonged-duration stretch with dynamic tension. The dependent variable was change from baseline in Plantar Fasciopathy Pain/Disability Scale score, and the independent variable was group (experimental versus control).
Results: Two-sample t tests were calculated, and there was a significant difference in the mean change scores of experimental versus control patients (−33 versus −2 points, P < .0001).
Conclusions: Dynamic splinting was effective for reducing the pain of plantar fasciopathy, and this modality should be included in the standard of care for treating plantar fasciopathy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(3): 161–165, 2010)
Podiatric physicians encounter many conditions, especially in sports medicine, that involve pain in the vicinity of the rearfoot or lower leg. These conditions are often associated with ankle equinus and may affect either child or adult sports participants. A review of the literature and clinical experience identify posterior night stretch splinting as an effective adjunct in the treatment of persistent symptomatic plantar fasciitis, negating the need for corticosteroid injections, further protracted pain, or surgery. This article reviews clinical cases in which night stretch splinting was used for a variety of diagnoses. Further research is needed into its efficacy for conditions other than plantar fasciitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 356-360, 2001)
In this retrospective analysis of 772 patients with symptomatic hallux limitus, 428 patients (55%) were successfully treated with conservative care alone; of these 428 patients, 362 (84%) were treated with orthoses. Corticosteroid injections and a change in shoes allowed 24 patients (6% of conservatively treated patients) and 42 patients (10%), respectively, to have less discomfort and return to previous activity levels. Overall, 47% of the patients in this analysis were successfully treated with orthoses. Surgical procedures were performed on 296 patients (38% of all patients) who did not respond to conservative care. In this analysis, 48 of the patients (6% of all patients) who did not respond to conservative care either refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. These data are intended to provide podiatric physicians with expected outcomes for conservative care of hallux limitus. The etiology, symptoms, conservative management, and surgical treatments of hallux limitus and hallux rigidus are also reviewed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(2): 102-108, 2002)
Nonoperational treatments for Morton's neuroma remain controversial because it is believed that sclerosing injections do not change nerve fibers on a cellular level. Up to 80% success rates with 4% ethanol sclerosing have been documented, and the remainder required operational removal of the painful nerve. We sought to evaluate the histologic characteristics of Morton's neuromas treated with 4% ethanol sclerosing injection versus corticosteroid injection alone in patients who required removal of the nerve for pain relief.
A retrospective histologic review was performed of 23 consecutive patients who were treated with either sclerosing injection or nonsclerosing injection and underwent nerve removal between September 1, 2012, and February 28, 2015.
Of 19 patients who met the inclusion criteria, eight received sclerosing injections and 11 received nonsclerosing injections. Intraneural fibrosis was more severe in the nonsclerosing injection group (P = .008).
Histologic changes are seen in Morton's neuroma with the use of 4% ethanol sclerosing injection, contrary to findings from previous studies.
Morton's neuroma is a frequently painful condition of the forefoot, causing patients to seek medical care to alleviate symptoms. A plethora of therapeutic options is available, some of which include injection therapies. Researchers have investigated injection therapy for Morton's neuroma, and latterly the evidence base has been augmented with methods that use diagnostic ultrasound as a vehicle to deliver the injectate under image guidance for additional accuracy. To date, there seems to be no consensus that ultrasound-guided injections provide better therapeutic outcomes than nonguided injections for the treatment of Morton's neuroma.
A systematic review was chosen because this method can undertake such a process. The review process identified 13 key papers using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, which then underwent methodological quality assessment using a pretested Quality Index. A narrative synthesis of the review findings is presented in light of the heterogeneity of the data from the extraction process.
This systematic review provides an argument that ultrasound guidance can produce better short- and long-term pain relief for corticosteroid injections, can reduce the need for additional procedures in a series of sclerosing alcohol injections, can reduce the surgical referral rate, and can add efficacy to a single injection.
Ultrasound guidance should be considered for injection therapy in the management of Morton's neuroma.
Forefoot pain can have single or multiple etiologies, and frequently pain is attributed solely to a forefoot nerve entrapment. It is well known that forefoot nerve entrapments, such as Morton’s, can be falsely assumed to be the cause of forefoot pain when in fact other factors, such as plantar plate disturbances, are the true cause. Frequently, the cause of the patient’s forefoot pain starts as a forefoot nerve entrapment, but then, as a result of treatment with a corticosteroid injection, other pathologies manifest, such as plantar plate rupture. The development of high-resolution, high-frequency ultrasound scanners has opened the door to in-depth examination of peripheral nerves as well as small pericapsular and intracapsular joint structures of the foot and ankle. In the hands of an experienced clinician, ultrasound can play an important role in differentiating nerve lesions and entrapment syndromes from nonneurogenic pain generators, such as tendons, ligaments, fasciae, and joint capsules. The focus of this article is the forefoot, where differentiation of neuroma, neuritis, and capsulitis can be difficult. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(5): 429–432, 2005)
We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with resistant heel pain attributable to plantar fascia rupture. She was treated with ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection, and her pain was decreased. Additionally, ultrasound was useful for diagnosis, intervention and follow-up of the patient.