Ultrasonography has demonstrated a shortening of the distance between the origin of the nail plate and the base of the distal phalanx in retronychia. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and ultrasonographic features of retronychia.
We evaluated the clinical findings in 18 patients with retronychia, along with the ratio of ultrasonographic distance a, extending between the nail plate origin and the base of the distal phalanx, to distance b, perpendicular to distance a, extending between the nail plate origin and the upper margin of the distal phalanx.
Retronychia was present in 26 nails. The mean ± SD distance a was 7.66 ± 1.64 mm and distance b was 3.56 ± 1.95 mm. The mean ± SD a/b ratio was 2.59 ± 1.11. There was a significant inverse correlation between a/b ratio and clinical severity (Pearson correlation = –0.668; P < .001). The cutoff value of this ratio was 3.319, with specificity of 90% and sensitivity of 69%.
The ratio of distance a/distance b and the cutoff value of this ratio may help in making the diagnosis, in objectively determining the disease severity, and in selecting a patient-specific treatment approach.
Metabolic disorders are known to alter the mechanical properties of tendons. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendon enthesopathic changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy.
We recruited 43 patients with T2DM and 40 controls. Neuropathy was excluded with the Michigan Neuropathy Scoring Instrument. Bilateral ultrasonography of the Achilles tendon enthesis was performed.
Patients with T2DM had a higher prevalence of hypoechogenicity (26.7% versus 2.5%; P = .0001), entheseal thickening (24.4% versus 8.7%; P = .007), and enthesophytes (74.4% versus 57.5%; P = .02). No differences were found in the number of patients with erosions (1.2% versus 0%; P > .99), cortical irregularities (11.6% versus 3.7%; P = .09), bursitis (5.8% versus 3.7%; P = .72), or tears (2.3% versus 1.2%; P > .99). The mean ± SD sum of abnormalities was higher in patients with T2DM (1.5 ± 1.1 versus 0.7 ± 0.6; P < .0001), as was the percentage of bilateral involvement (72.1% versus 45.0%; P = .01). Mean ± SD thickness did not differ between patients and controls (4.4 ± 1.1 mm versus 4.2 ± 0.8 mm; P = .07).
According to our data, there is an elevated prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendon enthesopathic changes in patients with T2DM independent of peripheral neuropathy.
The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, which can be applied as a free or pedicled flap, is supplied by musculocutaneous or septocutaneous perforators belonging to the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Because local or regional flap options that can be used for the reconstruction of large tissue losses in the distal third of the tibia and foot are limited, ALT and other free flaps are frequently used when needed. The aim of this report is to present our experience with and clinical results of free ALT flaps in a tertiary health-care institution. Between June of 2017 and April of 2020, lower extremity reconstruction with free ALT flaps was performed in seven patients. In the preoperative period, dominant perforators were determined in each patient by Doppler ultrasonography, and surgery was planned considering the size and localization of the defect. All the patients were men, with an average age of 41.7 years. Three patients were operated on for implant exposition on the distal-medial third of the tibia after fracture repair, one patient for posttraumatic calcaneal deformity with osteomyelitis, and two patients because of localized posttraumatic tissue loss in the anterior aspect of the tibia and one patient in the dorsum of the foot. Secondary recovery was achieved in two patients and localized linear necrosis was observed at the flap suture line. No infection was observed in the donor or recipient site. In all patients, the donor site was closed primarily and no wound healing problem was encountered. This is one of the primary reconstruction options for the free ALT flap, especially in cases of large tissue losses in which local and/or regional flap alternatives are insufficient.
Cyanosis of the digits may have several etiologies ranging from trauma to connective tissue disease; however, the most common cause of the so-called blue toe syndrome is atheroembolic disease or aneurysm and is frequently misdiagnosed on initial presentation. Pedal pulses are often palpable which may misdirect the physician from a diagnosis of vascular pathology. Furthermore, the proximal source of embolic shower may be far from the sight of symptoms. Noninvasive vascular testing, peripheral angiography, abdominal and popliteal ultrasonography, and echocardiography are all techniques that may be beneficial in discovering the origin of emboli. Atheroembolisms and aneurysms can be limb-threatening or life-threatening and hence early diagnosis is imperative.
We show an unusual presentation of a schwannoma that was located in the ungual bed of the left great toe. The clinical, color Doppler ultrasound imaging, and histologic findings are shown to illustrate the case. This type of neurogenic tumor and the ultrasound presurgical imaging support should be considered when dealing with subungual tumors of the foot.
The authors measured the thickness of the medial, central, and lateral bands of the plantar fascia using ultrasonographic techniques in 109 symptomatic patients with 211 painful heels. Plantar fasciitis was diagnosed by the presence of plantar heel pain and tenderness of the plantar fascia on palpation and was correlated with plantar fascia thickness. All of the symptomatic feet had medial band tenderness, with an average thickness of 5.9 mm, 68% had central band tenderness, with an average thickness of 5.3 mm, and 26% had lateral band tenderness, with an average thickness of 4.4 mm. The average thickness of all symptomatic bands was 5.35 mm, which was significantly greater than that for all asymptomatic bands, which was 2.70 mm. There were also significant differences in the thickness of the three plantar fascia bands in symptomatic patients. A plantar fascia index was established consisting of the ratio of the mean thickness of symptomatic medial, central, and lateral plantar fascia bands to that of asymptomatic bands; for this study, the index value is 1.98 (5.35/2.70 mm). (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 444-449, 2002)
This study describes the technique for decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve in Morton's neuroma by ultrasound-guided surgical resection of the transverse intermetatarsal ligament. This technique is based on the premise that Morton's neuroma is primarily a nerve entrapment disease. As with other ultrasound-guided procedures, we believe that this technique is less traumatic, allowing earlier return to normal activity, with less patient discomfort than with traditional surgical techniques.
We performed a pilot study on 20 cadavers to ensure that the technique was safe and effective. No neurovascular damage was observed in any of the specimens. In the second phase, ultrasound-guided release of the transverse intermetatarsal ligament was performed on 56 patients through one small (1- to 2-mm) portal using local anesthesia and outpatient surgery.
Of the 56 participants, 54 showed significant improvement and two did not improve, requiring further surgery (neurectomy). The postoperative wound was very small (1–2 mm). There were no cases of anesthesia of the interdigital space, and there were no infections.
The ultrasound-guided decompression of intermetatarsal nerve technique for Morton's neuroma by releasing the transverse intermetatarsal ligament is a safe, simple method with minimal morbidity, rapid recovery, and potential advantages over other surgical techniques. Surgical complications are minimal, but it is essential to establish a good indication because other biomechanical alterations to the foot can influence the functional outcome.
Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in the second and third interspaces in both sexes. To our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each sex independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and whether there is a variation by sex.
In this retrospective study, 582 deidentified magnetic resonance imaging reports with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2, 2015, through April 19, 2016. Incomplete records and those with radiologist findings inconsistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data were collected on sex, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age, and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data were evaluated using the Pearson χ2 and independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests, with P < .05 indicating statistical significance.
No statistically significant distribution between sex and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas was noted. Right vs left foot, age, and history of trauma did not vary statistically significantly between sexes. There was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between sexes. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (P = .01).
This study found that there were no statistically significant differences between sexes and Morton's neuromas location, laterality, or age.
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. Conservative treatment is often effective, but in many cases, invasive procedures may be required. Local corticosteroid injection is the most frequently used invasive technique and can be given under ultrasound (USG) or palpation guidance. We sought to compare the outcome of local corticosteroid injection by USG and palpation guidance in plantar fasciitis.
Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of patients who presented with heel pain between July 2015 and November 2016 and were screened for plantar fasciitis by USG. Patients with confirmed plantar fasciitis were managed conservatively for 4 weeks. The 60 consecutive patients not responding to the conservative treatment were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under USG guidance. Group B (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under palpation guidance. Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 weeks. We compared the visual analog scale score, plantar fascia thickness, and heel pad thickness in both groups.
Results: There was significant pain relief in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks of local corticosteroid injection, with greater relief noted in the USG-guided group. There was a significant decrement in plantar fascia thickness in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks; however, a greater decrement was observed in the USG-guided group. Neither group showed a significant difference in heel pad thickness after 3 and 6 weeks.
Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided injection provided better pain relief and a greater reduction in plantar fascia thickness than palpation-guided injection.
Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism as Rare Complications After Hallux Valgus Surgery
Case Report and Literature Review
The incidence and life-threatening complications of thromboembolic disease after major orthopedic surgical procedures have been extensively defined in the medical literature. However, there are few studies concerning the incidence of thromboembolic disease after foot and ankle surgery. We describe a 57-year-old female patient who underwent surgery for bilateral hallux valgus deformities and was diagnosed as having deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after the surgery despite early mobilization and mechanical prohylaxis. Her preoperative physical examination revealed varicose veins in both cruris. She was treated for pulmonary embolism with low-molecular-weight heparin and an oral anticoagulant in the postoperative period. Although venous thromboembolism is more commonly described after proximal lower-extremity procedures, it can occur after foot and ankle surgery, particularly if the patient has certain risk factors. Therefore, in addition to mechanical prophylaxis, pharmacologic prophylaxis should be kept in mind in such patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(2): 145–148, 2013)