A noninvasive method of assessing the motion of the subtalar joint was developed for use in clinical and research settings. Anatomical reference frames for the calcaneus and talus were produced using a marker placement model utilizing 14 markers. An asymptomatic individual was tested during barefoot walking with a CODA MPX30 system. Intertrial variability and motion patterns, in all three planes, of the calcaneus with respect to the talus were analyzed as part of a validation study. The observed patterns in all three planes were found to have good face validity with published literature as well as good consistency during stance. The findings of this study support the further use of this model in both clinical and research settings, allowing investigation of the motion patterns of a larger cohort than has hitherto been possible.
Keratosis lichenoid chronica is a rare dermatologic anomaly believed to be a variant of lichen planus. It presents as violaceous, nodular lesions usually on the dorsal aspects of the extremities and the trunk. The disease is refractory to treatment although psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and oral retinoids have been proven useful in some cases. Here we present the case of a 58-year-old male diagnosed with keratosis lichenoid chronica. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 264–266, 2012)
Human and mechanical simulations are used to teach and assess clinical competencies in medical education. In 2014, the National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners implemented the Clinical Skills Patient Encounter, an examination using standardized patients. Similar clinical skills examinations already existed as part of medical and osteopathic licensure examinations. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of simulation-based education in the nine colleges of podiatric medicine in the United States to inform podiatric clinical faculty and other stakeholders about current trends within the podiatric education system. In 2019, the Clinical Skills Patient Encounter committee of the National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners developed a survey and contacted each podiatric school to voluntarily participate. The mailed survey instrument gathered information on patient simulation modalities, years used, clinical content application, simulation program administration, facilities and equipment available, and the role of simulation educators. All nine schools participated anonymously. The survey showed that simulation modalities were used in all of the schools during the first 3 years, although there was considerable variance in their use.
This paper discusses the innovative changes in podiatric medical education found in today's schools and colleges of podiatric medicine, including changes in philosophy, resources and technology, curriculum, delivery methods, the role of faculty, and assessment tools, and the changing expectations of the students themselves. There is an emphasis on the shift from a teacher-centered approach to professional education to a student-centered approach. Technological advances have had a tremendous impact on the educational process and have opened doors to many new forms of educational delivery that better meet the needs of today's students. We believe that the podiatric medical education of today is the equivalent of allopathic and osteopathic education in quality and depth. The future holds the promise of many more exciting changes to come.
In the podiatric medicine profession, there are a variety of manual tasks that require precision and skill beyond what would be usually expected in everyday living. It is the expectation of employers, regulatory bodies, and the public that graduating podiatric physicians sufficiently meet certain minimum competencies for that profession, including those for manual skills. However, teaching and evaluation methods seem to be inconsistent between countries, institutions, and programs. This may be the consequence of uncertainty regarding the safest and most effective methods to do so. A review of available international literature pertaining to psychomotor learning across a range of health professions was undertaken. As a result of this broad review, we present herein the available evidence and make recommendations for the teaching of psychomotor skills in the podiatric medicine profession. Specific aspects considered important include methods of teaching, practice, and feedback.
This article presents a selection of Internet resources covering most of the subject areas found in standard medical education curricula. Basic-sciences sites are emphasized, but clinical resources are also included. Sites were evaluated on the basis of their potential to enhance the learning process, provide practice questions or study guides for examinations, or aid in the preparation of papers. Podiatric medical students, residents, and practitioners who require a quick reference guide to sources covering the basic-science foundations of podiatric medicine or the clinical side of general medicine may find this article useful. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 211–215, 2005)
Detailed description of foot pronation-supination requires multisegment evaluation of the kinematics of the foot-ankle complex. There are noninvasive methods with independent (single) tracking markers attached directly to the skin. However, these methods are inconsistent with the usual rigid segments assumption. In contrast, using clustered markers is compatible with this assumption and is necessary for analyses that need tracking markers to be distant from the foot (eg, shod walking). This study investigated the between-day reliability of a cluster-based method for multisegment analysis of foot-ankle angles related to pronation-supination.
Ten healthy adults participated in the study. An anatomically based, three-dimensional model comprising the shank, calcaneus, and forefoot was created. Rigid clusters of tracking markers were used to determine the relative positions and motions of the segments. Mean positions were measured with the subtalar joint in neutral position during standing. Furthermore, mean angles, peaks, and timings of peaks were measured during the stance phase of walking. All of the variables were measured twice, with a 1-week interval. To evaluate reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for discrete variables and coefficients of multiple correlation for entire gait curves.
Intraclass correlation coefficients varied from 0.8 to 0.93 for the angles obtained when the subtalar joint was in neutral and from 0.76 to 0.9 for walking variables. Coefficients of multiple correlation varied from 0.93 to 0.97 for walking curves.
The method described has good to high reliability and provides a systematic method for multisegment kinematic evaluation of foot-ankle pronation-supination.
Clinicians routinely assess foot posture as part of their assessment and management of foot pathologies. Flat or high-arched foot postures have been linked to kinematic deviations and increased risk of foot injuries. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a valid clinical tool used to classify feet into high-arched, normal-arched, and flat foot groups and predicts foot function during walking well. Walking and running are distinct locomotion styles, and studies have not been performed to correlate FPI to foot function during running. This study aims to investigate the association of FPI scores to foot kinematics during running. The results will further inform clinicians who perform static assessment of feet of individuals who are runners.
Sixty-nine participants had their feet assessed using the FPI scoring system. Based on these scores, the feet were categorized as flat foot, normal-arched, and high-arched. Rearfoot eversion and forefoot dorsiflexion (arch flattening) of the foot were analysed during slow running between 1.4 and 2.2 m/sec. The Pearson correlation was used to analyse the FPI scores on an interval scale, with Cohen's d used to report effect size. One-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze data by category. Level of significance was set at P < .05.
Thirty-four flat feet, 26 normal-arched feet, and nine high-arched feet were analyzed. The FPI scores correlated significantly with rearfoot eversion (moderate effect size) and forefoot dorsiflexion (low effect size). Rearfoot eversion was greatest in the flat foot, followed by the normal-arched foot and the high-arched foot. Forefoot dorsiflexion was significantly higher in the flat foot compared with the high-arched group.
Foot Posture Index scores are positively correlated with rearfoot eversion and forefoot dorsiflexion during running. Clinicians can use this information to aid their foot assessment and management of individuals who are runners.