Hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive and uncontrollable sweating due to overactivity of the eccrine sweat glands. The first line of treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis consists of conservative therapies such as topical solutions (ie, antiperspirant applications and aluminum chloride preparations) and iontophoresis. When the patient has failed these standard treatments, the other available medical options are rather limited and not well tolerated. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan Inc, Irvine, California) is a purified neurotoxin complex approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for multiple medical conditions, including severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that failed conservative topical therapies. Few recent clinical studies have suggested that botulinum toxin is effective in the treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis. In this case study, two patients received intradermal injections of botulinum toxin type A into the plantar aspect of both feet. A 3-month follow-up evaluated the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A by subjectively assessing the amount of residual sweating. In these two patients, botulinum toxin type A was an effective and safe treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 156–159, 2008)
Flexible pes planovalgus is a common condition with flattening of the medial longitudinal arch accompanied by hindfoot valgus. Severe cases of pes planovalgus may need surgery, and a technique that has gained popularity over the past decades is subtalar arthroereisis. An endoorthotic implant of various shapes is inserted in the sinus tarsus, which limits the excessive eversion of the subtalar joint present in flexible pes planovalgus. None of these implants, however, allow for easy control of the extent of talocalcaneal and talonavicular correction. The primary aim of this study was to describe our technique with the custom-built cone-shaped implant. Our secondary aim was to evaluate patient satisfaction, clinical and radiologic results, and complications with a minimal follow-up of 5 years. Between January 1992 and June 2002, 40 patients (80 feet) underwent subtalar arthroereisis for flexible pes planovalgus. After temporary sinus tarsi tenderness (12 feet), implant dislocation (two feet) was the most common complication. Questionnaires from 27 patients (54 feet) were analyzed and 44 feet were also clinically and radiographically evaluated. Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up. Mean (± SD) follow-up was 12.6 years (range, 5.9–16.1). Eighty-one percent of the patients were satisfied with the result. Clinically, normal alignment was present in 14 feet, and mild deformities remained in 26 feet. Radiographically, the average foot angle measurements were normal. We conclude that subtalar arthroereisis is a simple, minimally invasive operative option with satisfactory subjective and clinical results after mid- to long-term follow-up. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(5): 447–453, 2009)
Intraosseous lipomas are rare benign bone neoplasms with an incidence of less than 0.1%; origin in the calcaneus has been reported in only a few patients. First-line treatment remains conservative, but several surgical techniques have also been described. We describe a 44-year-old woman with increasing pain in her left heel for a year and a half, who noticed swelling on the lateral side of the calcaneus. The patient underwent radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography of her left foot, which was suspicious for an intraosseous lipoma with a threatening calcaneal fracture. We performed a surgical procedure, curettage of the tumor, spongioplastics (by autologous bone transplant and ?-tricalcium phosphate), and internal stabilization with a calcaneal plate considering the goal of immediate postoperative weightbearing. Histologic examination confirmed an intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus. The patient's pain was relieved immediately after surgery. Internal stabilization of the calcaneus allowed the patient to immediately fully weightbear and to return to usual daily activities. Although a benign bone tumor, intraosseous lipoma can cause many complications, such as persistent pain, decreased function, or even pathologic fracture as a result of calcaneal bone weakening. Choosing an appropriate treatment is still controversial. Conservative treatment is the first option, but for patients with severe problems and threatening fracture, surgery is necessary. Internal fixation for stabilization enables immediate postoperative weightbearing and shortens recovery time.
This article presents a new nail block technique that constitutes an alternative local block for procedures involving the hallux nail and nail fold. It has significant advantages in terms of simplicity, effectiveness, safety, and economy over the traditional hallux block in selected procedures. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(6): 589–592, 2005)
A case describing an O-to-Z double-advancement flap used to treat a 62-year-old woman with a slowly enlarging exophytic mass in the plantar aspect of the right foot is presented. Clinical details, surgical technique, and histologic photographs are described. This case report highlights the rare exophytic presentation of a pedal angioleiomyoma, which has not been described in the literature before.
Presented here is a preliminary report of 102 patients who underwent first metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodeses performed with external fixation for the correction of hallux valgus. The advantages of using external fixation are the ability to initiate early weightbearing, predictable fusion, and removal of all of the hardware postoperatively. In the 102 patients reported here, the average time to initiation of unassisted full weightbearing was 13.1 days. The average time to fusion was 5.3 weeks, with removal of the external fixator at an average of 5.5 weeks postoperatively. There was no incidence of delayed union or nonunion. There was one case of pin-tract irritation, which resolved with appropriate pin care and a short course of oral antibiotics. External fixation is an effective alternative to traditional internal fixation techniques in metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodesis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 405–409, 2005)
We present a unique case of congenital bilateral simple syndactyly of the first and second toes that was surgically treated using a full-thickness skin graft harvested from the same foot at the lateral aspect of the ankle. This surgical approach eliminates the potential need to involve another surgical team to harvest a donor graft from above the ankle, saving operating room time, anesthesia time, and overall cost to the patient. Cosmetically, scar formation above the ankle is also eliminated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(6): 513–517, 2006)
Phenol matrixectomy is commonly used to treat onychocryptosis. The podiatric medical community has been progressively improving the technique of phenol application to avoid cases of burns. We describe a modification that uses gauze to provide a safe way for the phenol to be applied and prevents skin lesions due to phenol burns. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 418–421, 2008)
A posterior bone-block operation is one of the few treatment options in cases of paralytic footdrop. A case with a flail ankle and no bony deformity is ideal for this approach. Two cases of acquired flail ankle with equinus deformity were treated using a new modification of the bone-block technique that does not interfere with subtalar joint motion. A bone block harvested from the iliac crest was fixed at the posterior talus after partial resection of the posterior tubercle. The graft was in contact with the posterior malleolus of the tibia. Satisfactory correction was achieved, and both patients could walk without the use of external splints. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 160–164, 2007)
A single prospective group study in adults was performed using a new bioabsorbable screw, the NuGen Fx screw (Linvatec Biomaterials Ltd, Tampere, Finland). This multisite study included five sites and 50 patients (10 patients per site). The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the NuGen Fx screw system in the fixation of osteotomies, arthrodeses, and fractures in the foot and ankle. We discuss our own results from 12 patients treated at the Kentucky Podiatric Residency Program at Norton Audubon Hospital, Louisville. The number of patients in the study, screw sizes, instrumentation, radiologic evaluation findings, and our overview of this implant are presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(1): 73–77, 2006)