Background: Controversy exists regarding the structural and functional causes of hallux limitus, including metatarsus primus elevatus, a long first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, the shape of the first metatarsal head, and the presence of hallux interphalangeus. Some articles have reported on the radiographic evaluation of these measurements in feet affected by hallux limitus, but no study has directly compared the affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. This case-control pilot study aimed to establish whether any such differences exist.
Methods: Dorsoplantar and lateral weightbearing radiographs of both feet in 30 patients with unilateral hallux limitus were assessed for grade of disease, lateral intermetatarsal angle, metatarsal protrusion distance, plantar gapping at the first metatarsocuneiform joint, metatarsal head shape, and hallux abductus interphalangeus angle. Data analysis was performed using a statistical software program.
Results: Mean radiographic measurements for affected and unaffected feet demonstrated that metatarsus primus elevatus, a short first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, a flat metatarsal head shape, and hallux interphalangeus were prevalent in both feet. There was no statistically significant difference between feet for any of the radiographic parameters measured (Mann-Whitney U tests, independent-samples t tests, and Pearson χ2 tests: P > .05).
Conclusions: No significant differences exist in the presence of the structural risk factors examined between affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. The influence of other intrinsic factors, including footedness and family history, should be investigated further.
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, open reduction and internal fixation, and primary arthrodesis are procedures used in the surgical treatment of calcaneal fractures. This study presents short-term clinical and radiologic results of patients with calcaneal fractures treated by closed indirect reduction with Endobutton-assisted minimally invasive osteosynthesis.
Twenty-one feet of 18 patients (four women and 14 men) with calcaneal fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Böhler and Gissane angles were measured from the preoperative, postoperative, and latest follow-up lateral radiographs of the feet. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores were used for the 6-month and latest follow-up clinical assessments.
The mean preoperative Böhler angle of 17.1° was corrected to a mean of 20.4° postoperatively. The mean value of this angle measured at the time of latest follow-up was 21.3°. The mean preoperative and postoperative Gissane angles were 116° and 117.8°, respectively. The mean value of this angle measured at the time of latest follow-up was 117.4°. The mean 6-month postoperative AOFAS score was 59.8 points. The mean AOFAS score at the time of latest follow-up (79.1 points) was significantly higher than the mean score 6 months postoperatively (P < .001). Regarding the latest follow-up AOFAS scores, four were poor, four were moderate, ten were good, and three were excellent.
With a low learning curve and satisfactory clinical outcomes, this technique can be used in acute, edematous cases with soft-tissue injuries to avoid calcaneal enlargement, infection, and soft-tissue problems.
This study was performed to determine the factors that influence the clinical outcomes of surgically treated ankle fractures associated with the posterior malleolus (PM).
We evaluated 42 fractures of 42 patients. Posterior malleolus fracture size was calculated using computed tomography. Posterior malleolar fractures with a size less than 10% were left nonfixated. The decision for larger fragments was performed using fluoroscopy following the fixation of other components. If the joint was found to be congruent, the PM was left nonfixated. Otherwise, the PM was reduced and fixated. Clinical outcomes were evaluated based on Weber, Freiburg, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores. Ankle osteoarthritis was determined according to the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society classification. The effect of PM fixation, age, PM fragment size, waiting period before surgery, presence of ankle dislocation, and number of injured malleoli on clinical outcomes were assessed. Statistical significance was set at a value of P < .05.
The mean patients age was 48.5 ± 14.9 years (range, 20–84 years) and the mean follow-up was 23.7 ± 8.6 months (range, 12–56 months). Fixation of the PM was performed solely in 12 patients. Postoperative displacement of the PM and articular step were less than 2 mm in all fractures. Statistically significant worse outcomes were demonstrated based on functional scores in the patients with a PM size greater than or equal to 25% (P = .042, P = .038, and P = .048, respectively) and in patients aged 60 years or older (P = .005, P = .007, and P = .018, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between functional scores and the other factors. Ankle osteoarthritis was observed at a higher rate in patients with PM size greater than or equal to 25% and in patients aged 60 years or older.
Clinical outcomes of the patients are mainly influenced by the patient's age and PM fragment size. However, if the tibiotalar joint is congruent, comparable results can be obtained in PM fixated or nonfixated patients.
Background: Although pilon fractures are rare, they are important for orthopedic surgeons because of the difficulty of their treatment and their adverse effects on gait function. The aim of this was study to evaluate the relationship between the reduction quality of the fracture, functional results, ankle arthrosis, and plantar pressure distribution in patients with tibia pilon fractures.
Methods: In this study, a total of 62 patients treated for an intraarticular pilon fracture in our clinic between January of 2015 and January of 2019 were evaluated retrospectively. Postoperative reduction qualities of the patients were evaluated with the Ovadia-Beals criteria; ankle functional scores were evaluated with the Teeny-Wiss score; and ankle arthrosis was evaluated with the Takakura classification. At the last patient follow-up, foot loading analysis was performed, and the results were evaluated for their relation with postoperative reduction quality, ankle function, and ankle arthrosis.
Results: There were 62 patients (50 men and 12 women). The average age was 43.3 years (range, 19–78 years). The mean follow-up was 34.3 months (range, 24–58 months). The mean Ovadia-Beals score was 12.35 ± 4.6 on the postoperative plain radiographs of the patients; the mean Teeny-Wiss score at the last follow-up was 76.82 ± 17.69; and the mean Takakura score was 1.47 ± 1.35. Based on the pedobarographic measurements, 47.58% of the patients put weight on the anterior portion and 52.42% on the posterior portion of the foot in the anteroposterior plane. In the mediolateral plane, 42.15% loaded on the medial portion of the ankle and 57.85% loaded on the lateral portion of the foot.
Conclusions: Intra-articular tibia pilon fractures can be demonstrated by lateralization of the walking axis and changes in gait patterns and can be associated with clinical outcome.
Clinical recommendations for the prevention and healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are somewhat clear. However, assessment and quantification of the mechanical stress responsible for DFU remain complex. Different pressure variables have been described in the literature to better understand plantar tissue stress exposure. This article reviews the role of pressure and shear forces in the pathogenesis of plantar DFU.
We performed systematic searches of the PubMed and Embase databases, completed by a manual search of the selected studies. From 535 potentially relevant references, 70 studies were included in the full-text review.
Variables of plantar mechanical stress relate to vertical pressure, shear stress, and temporality of loading. At this time, in-shoe peak plantar pressure (PPP) is the only reliable variable that can be used to prevent DFU. Although it is a poor predictor of in-shoe PPP, barefoot PPP seems complementary and may be more suitable when evaluating patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy who seem noncompliant with footwear. An in-shoe PPP threshold value of 200 kPa has been suggested to prevent DFU. Other variables, such as peak pressure gradient and peak maximal subsurface shear stress and its depth, seem to be of additional utility.
To better assess the at-risk foot and to prevent ulceration, the practitioner should integrate quantitative models of dynamic foot plantar pressures, such as in-shoe and barefoot PPPs, with the regular clinical screening examination. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate causality between other variables of mechanical stress and DFUs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(4): 322–332, 2013)