Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder that affects several organs and systems in the human body. Digital gangrene is known to be a rare and severe complication of systemic lupus erythematosus that could lead to amputation. We report a case of an adolescent who presented with an autoimmune disorder and multiple comorbidities and developed gangrenous toes.
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a skin disease characterized by wounds with blue-to-purple undermined borders surrounding purulent necrotic bases. This article reports on a patient with a circumferential, full-thickness, and partially necrotic lower-extremity ulceration of unknown etiology. Results of laboratory tests and arterial and venous imaging studies were found to be within normal limits. The diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was made on the basis of the histologic appearance of the wound tissue after biopsy as a diagnosis of exclusion. Negative pressure wound therapy was undertaken, which saved the patient’s leg from amputation. Although negative pressure wound therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of chronic wounds in a variety of circumstances, this is the first documented use of this technique to treat an ulceration secondary to pyoderma gangrenosum. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 171–174, 2005)
Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular thrombosis involving both the arterial and venous systems that can lead to tissue ischemia or end-organ damage. Much of the literature describes various symptoms at initial presentation, but isolated tissue ischemia manifesting as a solitary blue toe is unusual. We discuss a case of a 23-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a solitary blue fourth digit with minimal erythema and edema, who was suffering from exquisite pain. Following an extensive workup, the patient was diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome with thrombi of the vasculature in their lower extremity. With therapeutic anticoagulation, the patient's symptoms subsided and amputation of the digit was prevented.
Acroangiodermatitis (AAD), also known as pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma, is an uncommon benign angioproliferative condition most commonly seen in the lower extremities. This condition often presents as discolored patches that progress to painful ulcerations. The list of vascular conditions associated with this diagnosis is vast. Acroangiodermatitis presents similarly to more aggressive conditions such as Kaposi's sarcoma, making histopathologic examination helpful in its diagnosis. We present two cases of AAD in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency.
Medication hypersensitivity is a constant variable that podiatric physicians face during their professional day. To avoid potential patient harm, an understanding of penicillin and cephalosporin hypersensitivities as it pertains to podiatric medicine needs to be achieved. To accomplish this, a narrative describing the signs, symptoms, and immunologic mechanisms for the basis of penicillin and cephalosporin drug hypersensitivities is presented. Second, specific medical literature serving as clinical-based evidence to support the prescribing of cephalosporins in patients with documented penicillin allergy is presented. Finally, a review of the medical and legal literature describing health-care provider liability regarding subsequent drug hypersensitivity is presented. The information contained in this review allows for the evolving paradigm that permits the prescribing of selective cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy as long as the allergic symptoms were not serious or life-threatening. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 479–488, 2008)
Pernio is an inflammatory condition of the skin associated with cold exposure. The dermatologic manifestations may vary, and this entity is frequently misdiagnosed. Its association with systemic disease underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis. The authors describe a case report in which a patient who, after initially presenting with a complaint of pain and an ingrown toenail, was eventually diagnosed with pernio as well.
Psoriatic arthritis is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory disease. Laboratory testing for psoriatic arthritis, although necessary for a complete work-up, is generally nondiagnostic for most patients. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman with unilateral plantar forefoot pain and swelling that was diagnosed as psoriatic arthritis. The diagnosis was made without the benefit of skin manifestations or definitive laboratory results, other than those from laboratory tests performed for an initial evaluation of acute-phase reactants. Radiographs showed nonspecific subchondral bone changes at a few metatarsophalangeal joints of the involved foot that suggested an inflammatory arthropathy. This case illustrates that the absence of specific serum markers for psoriatic arthritis can make its diagnosis challenging, especially in the absence of dermatologic changes of psoriasis.
Acquired acro-osteolysis (AOL) is defined as the resorption of bone from the tufts or shafts of the terminal phalanges. Acquired acro-osteolysis can manifest as a primary osteolysis syndrome and also appears in a number of disease states including rheumatologic disorders, neuropathic diseases, the result of prolonged exposure to polyvinyl chloride, and in rare cases, as a response to repeated mechanical stress. In this report, a 46-year-old surfer was evaluated for AOL as a complication of sports-related repetitive trauma to the right second and third toes. Radiography showed the bony tips of his right second and third toes had been eroded away. Acquired acro-osteolysis in the surfer’s toes resulted from increased blood flow initiated to repair microdamage caused by repeated trauma to the distal ends of his second and third right toes due to the habitual dragging of the affected toes across a surfboard. The always initial lytic phase of bone repair was magnified by the increased arterial input to warm the extremities after prolonged exposure to cold. At 6-years’ follow-up, the use of a protective bandage while surfing has permitted full regeneration of the affected toes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 165–168, 2012)
Although both conditions are relatively common, there are very few descriptions of type 2 diabetes mellitus coexisting with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). This case report and literature review describes a 53-year-old Irish man who presented with type 2 diabetes and significant neuropathy, and who was subsequently diagnosed with CMT type 1A. This case report will also discuss how to differentiate diabetic neuropathy from a progressive hereditary neuropathy and how coexistence aggravates the progression of neuropathy thus necessitating early diagnosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(4): 349–352, 2011)